File Name: biofuel advantages and disadvantages .zip
They can have a lower net greenhouse gas emission balance than traditional fuels and, if advanced, do not compete with agricultural production for the food market.
- Biomass Advantages and Disadvantages
- ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BIOFUELS: OBSERVATIONS IN LATVIA
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Biomass Advantages and Disadvantages
Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. A review: Advantages and Disadvantages of Biodiesel. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. An energy resource is something that can produce heat, power, life, move objects, or produce electricity. Matter that stores energy is called a fuel. Human energy consumption has grown steadily along with population and final reached a stage of extinction .
In today's society, humans consume as much as times of the energy consumed by early human i. Most of the energy we use today come from fossil fuels. But fossils fuels have a disadvantage that they are limited in nature , and cause other potentially harmful effects on the environment . Renewable ResourcesRenewable resources are that resources which can be replenished by the environment over relatively short periods of time.
This type of resource is much more desirable to use because it can be compensated by the nature. Some examples of renewable energy sources are solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, geothermal energy, and biomass energy . Non-Renewable ResourcesIn contrast to renewable resources, non-renewable resources are resources that are not easily replenished by the environment.
Earth minerals and metal ores, fossil fuels coal, petroleum, and natural gas and groundwater in conditions are considered non-renewable resources. FUELSIn our day to day life we see many machines running around us, for running them some form of energy is required which is provided by the help of fuel. A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases chemical or nuclear energy as which can be utilized directly or can be converted into work.
Fossil fuels were rapidly adapted during the industrial revolution because they were cheap and efficient . They have become a major part our society but they have also imputed to pollution. Currently people are more inclined towards usage of renewable fuels such as biofuels. Biofuels are fuels which are derived from biomass, they can be in solid, liquid and gaseous form.
Biomass can be used directly for heating or power or it can be processed to get the maximum benefit from it. Biofuel can be produced from any carbonaceous material.
Many different plant derived materials are used for biofuel manufacturing. Ethanol is also a biofuel because it is made from corm . Biodiesel is vehicle fuel made from vegetable oil. Air-fuel ratio AFR is the mass ratio of air to fuel present in a combustion process such as in an internal combustion engine or industrial furnace.
As we can see from the above chart that the main source of energy in India is fossil fuels which is not good for the environment. So we require alternative fuels . All these sources are renewable or and can be replenished by the environment and do not cause environmental pollution. Moreover they do not require heavy expenditure.
The energy we get from biomass is bio energy. Some vital forms of biomass are inferior wood, urban waste. Biomass refers to all plant material and animal waste product when pulp, livestock and human waste .
It includes both terrestrial as well as aquatic matter such as new plant growth, residues and wastes. Biodiesel is made by chemically reacting vegetable oil, soybean oil, or animal fat with an alcohol produced from different fatty acids . Bio-diesel is employed in standard diesel engines and is therefore distinct from the vegetable and waste oils used in fuel converted diesel engines.
Bio-diesel can be used alone, or mixed with petro diesel in certain proportions. Biodiesel is often referred to as monoalkyl ester with long chain fatty acids . In Europe, rapeseed oil is the major biodiesel feedstock . In the United States soya beans are major biodiesel feedstock. Whereas the processing costs of this urban source are higher per gallon than the processing costs of virgin vegetable oils.
Animal FatsAnimal fats are low cost biodiesel feed-stocks. However, there are also some drawbacks and challenges to animal fat feed-stocks . AlgaeMicroalgae have long been considered as potentially good sources for biofuel production because of their relatively high oil content and rapid biomass production . The seeds should be processed close to the time when the oil will be processed into biodiesel.
Before processing the seeds must be cleaned, screened, and, in some cases, hammered or dehulled . The meal or cake in some cases must be heated to deactivate toxic components before use. Biodiesel is not the same as straight vegetable oil or animal fat.
A normal diesel engine will eventually be damaged through the use of straight vegetable oil or straight animal fat fuel. This process separates the glycerin from oil or fat. Thus resulting in biodiesel which is thinner than the original oil or fat and works better in diesel engine .
Biodiesel production is the method of producing the biofuel, biodiesel, through the chemical reactions such as transesterification and esterification.
This involves vegetable or animal fats and oils being reacted with short chain alcohols typically methanol or ethanol. The alcohols used should be of low relative molecular mass, ethanol is most commonly used because of its low cost, however greater conversion into biodiesel can be done using methanol . The method of production is base catalyzed transesterification, this process is chosen because it consumes less time and also the cost of catalyst is low.
This process is cheaper than the acid esterification . However alkaline catalyst has the disadvantage of high sensitivity to both water and fatty acid present within the oil. TransesterificationAnimal and vegetable oils are composed of triglycerides, which are esters of three free fatty acids and glycerol. In the transesterification process, the addition of alcohol and alkali de-polymerization occurs, making it a stronger nucleophile. It can be seen that the reaction did not have other inputs than triglycerides and alcohol.
Common catalysts for transesterification include sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and sodium methoxide . However, biodiesel made from different sources or in other ways may require acidic catalysts, which are much slower . Due to the dominant technique for production almost all biodiesel is made from virgin vegetable oil using basic catalyst techniques because it is action on an industrial scale, only the base catalyzed transesterification method is discussed below.
Base-catalysed transesterification mechanismThe transesterification reaction is the base catalyzed. Strong bases capable of deprotonating the alcohol can be used, but sodium and potassium hydroxide are generally selected due to their lower prices. The presence of water causes undesired base hydrolysis, so the reaction must remain dry . In the transesterification mechanism, carbonyl carbon from the starting ester RCOOR1 undergoes a nucleophilic attack by an inlet alkoxide R2O- to provide a tetrahedral intermediate, which returns to the starting material, or passes to the transesterification product RCOOR2.
Various species exist in equilibrium and therefore the product distribution depends on the relative energies of reactant and product. This drastically reduces production time and increases production volume .
The reaction is carried out in the highly energetic zone of the Ultra and High Shear mixer, reducing the size of the incompressible liquid droplets, such as oil or fat and methanol. Therefore, smaller the drop size larger the surface area, which will allow larger catalyst action. In the critical state, the oil and methanol are in a single phase, and reaction happens spontaneously and quickly .
The process can tolerate water within the feedstock, free fatty acids are converted to methyl esters rather than soap, thus a wide variety of feedstocks may be used.
And also the catalyst removal step is eliminated. This cavitation at the same time provides the space for blending and heating required to carry out the transesterification process. Thus, using an ultrasonic reactor for biodiesel production drastically reduces the reaction time, reaction temperatures, and energy input. Therefore the method of transesterification will run inline instead of using the time consuming batch processing.
Industrial scale ultrasonic devices allow the commercial scale processing of thousands of barrels per day . Products of the reaction include not only biodiesel, but also byproducts, soap, glycerol, excess alcohol, and trace amounts of water. All of these byproducts must be excluded for perfect blend of biodiesel, but the order of removal is process-dependent. The density of glycerol is greater than that of biodiesel, and this property difference is the key to separate the bulk of the glycerol coproduct.
Residual methanol is typically recovered by distillation and reused . Soaps can be removed or converted into acids. Residual water is also removed from the fuel .
Biodiesel is a liquid fuel usually stated as B or neat biodiesel in its pure, un homogenised form. Like petroleum diesel, biodiesel is used as fuel in compression-ignition engines. How well biodiesel performs in weather condition depends on the blend of biodiesel . The smaller the proportion of biodiesel within the mix, the better it performs in cold temperatures. Regular No. Biodiesel that is most frequently used as a blend with regular diesel fuel can be used in several diesel vehicles without any engine modification.
Before using biodiesel, it's necessary to check the engine's warranty to make sure that higher-level blends of alternative fuel do not void or have an effect on it. Biodiesel improves fuel lubricity and raises the Cetane number of the fuel.
Diesel engines depend upon the lubricity of the fuel to stay moving components from wearing untimely.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BIOFUELS: OBSERVATIONS IN LATVIA
Biofuels were once touted as the saviors of the economy and the answers to our ever growing energy needs. As it turns out, they aren't quite the silver bullet they were claimed to be. Though biofuels have a number of advantages over fossil fuels, their integration into the fuel supply chain has to be done with great care to ensure that their potential disadvantages are, if not eliminated, at least minimized. At the current time, more "radical" alternative fuel technologies such as solar and wind have one major problem - portability. It is very difficult to transport large quantities of electricity without using heavy, relatively inefficient batteries.
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DOI : Background: Biofuels are one of the promising alternative fuel sources for automobiles. The use of biofuels in combustion engines of automobiles showed many advantages and disadvantages. In this study, the advantages and disadvantages of using biofuels in internal combustion engines are reviewed and summarized based on early studies. Biofuels can offer favorable well-towheel CO2 balance in our environment and improve engine power and efficiency.
Skip to Main Content. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Biofuels in Malaysian perspective: Debates and benefits Abstract: Fossil fuels bring about concerns like air pollution, rising greenhouse gas emissions due to its combustion and depletion issues. The need to more to biofuels as an alternative and renewable energy source is for a sustainable and environment for the future.
Fuels that have been extracted from plants and crops are known as biofuels. It is blended with gasoline and can be used as an alternative fuel for your car. Plant-based fuels come from renewable sources , can be grown anywhere and have lower carbon emissions as compared to fossil fuels. We should increase our development of alternative fuels, taking advantage of renewable resources, like using corn and sugar to produce ethanol or soybeans to produce biodiesel. As prices of crude oil are soaring day by day, most people are switching to biofuels to save money and reduce their dependence on oil.
Biodiesel production technologies: review[J]. AIMS Energy, , 5 3 : Article views PDF downloads Cited by
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Viesturs and L. Viesturs , L. Melece Published Economics. Biofuels have recently emerged as a major issue in energy policy, rural development and natural resource management.
In order to achieve this aim, several tasks were set: to investigate the biofuel production, balance and consumption trends in Latvia, comparing with other.
Он уходил корнями в давние времена. В эпоху Возрождения скульпторы, оставляя изъяны при обработке дорогого мрамора, заделывали их с помощью сеrа, то есть воска. Статуя без изъянов, которую не нужно было подправлять, называлась скульптурой sin cera, иными словами - без воска. С течением времени это выражение стало означать нечто честное, правдивое.
Сьюзан шумно вздохнула. Какими же программами он пользовался. Открыв меню последних программ, она обнаружила, что это был сервер электронной почты. Сьюзан обшарила весь жесткий диск и в конце концов нашла папку электронной почты, тщательно запрятанную среди других директорий. Открыв ее, она увидела несколько дополнительных папок; создавалось впечатление, что у Хейла было множество почтовых адресов.
Сьюзан двигалась как во сне. Подойдя к компьютеру Джаббы, она подняла глаза и увидела своего любимого человека.