File Name: prior time and modality .zip
- Space-Time Compatibility Effects in the Auditory Modality
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- Frontal and parietal alpha oscillations reflect attentional modulation of cross-modal matching
- Modal logic
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Space-Time Compatibility Effects in the Auditory Modality
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Yuki Murai, Yuki Hashimoto, Yuko Yotsumoto; Modality-dependent and modality-independent nature of central tendency in time perception. Journal of Vision ;16 12 When stimuli of various durations are presented in an intermixed fashion, longer durations are underestimated, and shorter durations are overestimated. This phenomenon, called the central tendency, suggests that our brains optimally encode stimulus duration based on the likelihood measured by the timing system and the prior knowledge about the distribution of the stimulus duration. Our study aims to examine how stimulus modality affects this optimal encoding of time across different timescales. Recent studies have revealed that two distinct systems are recruited in the perception of sub- and supra-second durations.
Experimental Psychology , 59, pp. And these concepts can both prime motor responses to left or right space and direct visual spatial attention. The present study aimed at investigating the nature of this space-time conceptual metaphor in different auditory tasks. In the first experiment, subjects categorized time-related words past or future that were presented binaurally. In the second experiment, subjects detected left-ear or right-ear targets following time-related words. The similar space-time compatibility effects were found in these two experiments.
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Modal logic is a collection of formal systems originally developed and still widely used to represent statements about necessity and possibility. This formula is widely regarded as valid when necessity and possibility are understood with respect to knowledge, as in epistemic modal logic. The first modal axiomatic systems were developed by C. Lewis in , building on an informal tradition stretching back to Aristotle. The relational semantics for modal logic was developed by Arthur Prior , Jaakko Hintikka , and Saul Kripke in the mid twentieth century. In this semantics, formulas are assigned truth values relative to a possible world. A formula's truth value at one possible world can depend on the truth values of other formulas at other accessible possible worlds.
His greatest achievement was the invention of modern temporal logic, worked out in close connection with modal logic. However, his work in logic had a much broader scope. He was also the founder of hybrid logic, and he made important contributions to deontic logic, modal logic, the theory of quantification, the nature of propositions and the history of logic. In addition, he discussed questions of ethics, free will, and general theology. His earliest articles center on philosophical theology and historical studies of Scottish Reformed Theology. This led on to the publication of his first influential work on ethics: Logic and The Basis of Ethics With the invention of tense-logic in the early s, his focus shifted to investigations into the syntax of tempo-modal logic leading to his seminal Time and Modality , a volume derived from his John Locke Lectures in Oxford in
Frontal and parietal alpha oscillations reflect attentional modulation of cross-modal matching
Handbook of Philosophical Logic pp Cite as. Physics should have helped us to realize that a temporal theory of a phenomenon X is, in general, more than a simple combination of two components: the statics of X and the ordered set of temporal instants. The case in which all functions from times to world-states are allowed is uninteresting; there are too many such functions, and the theory has not begun until we have begun to restrict them. And often the principles that emerge from the interaction of time with the phenomena seem new and surprising.
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Arthur Prior — undertook pioneering work in intensional logic at a time when modality and intensional concepts in general were under attack. He invented tense logic and was principal theoretician of the movement to apply modal syntax to the formalisation of a wide variety of phenomena. Prior and Carew Meredith devised a version of the possible worlds semantics several years before Saul Kripke published his first paper on the topic. An iconoclast and a resourceful innovator, Prior inspired many to undertake work in intensional logic. Yet for him the point of a logical calculus was always that it had a subject matter, be it time, obligation, agency, or even biology, and a concern for philosophical problems never lay far below his theorems. It was the extra-symbolic world that mattered to Prior, not the formal results per se.
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PDF | Contemporary hybrid logic is based on the idea of using formulas as perspective on modal logic (outside pure philosophy) actually is. completely unspeciﬁed past time Caliban did in fact fall (which is the meaning.
Падре Херрера, главный носитель чаши, с любопытством посмотрел на одну из скамей в центре, где начался непонятный переполох, но вообще-то это его мало занимало. Иногда кому-то из стариков, которых посетил Святой Дух, становилось плохо. Только и делов - вывести человека на свежий воздух. Халохот отчаянно озирался, но Беккера нигде не было. Сотни людей стояли на коленях перед алтарем, принимая причастие. Может быть, Беккер был среди .
- Оценки ущерба всюду приводятся разные. - Она еще раз взглянула на текст. - Элементы, ответственные… У Дэвида Беккера, находившегося в трех тысячах миль от комнаты оперативного управления, загорелись. - Элементы! - воскликнул. - Мы говорим о математике, а не об истории. Головы повернулись к спутниковому экрану. - Танкадо играет с нами в слова! - сказал Беккер.
Что с тобой? - удивленно спросил Хейл. Сьюзан встретилась с ним взглядом и прикусила губу. - Ничего, - выдавила .
Это новейшее оружие, направленное против разведслужб. Если эта программа попадет на рынок, любой третьеклассник, имеющий модем, получит возможность отправлять зашифрованные сообщения, которые АНБ не сможет прочесть. Это означает конец нашей разведки.
Родившийся и выросший в Лиссабоне, он выполнял задания агентства по всей Европе. Его ни разу не удалось разоблачить, указав на Форт- Мид. Единственная беда - Халохот глухой, с ним нельзя связаться по телефону. Недавно Стратмор сделал так, что Халохота снабдили новейшей игрушкой АНБ - компьютером Монокль. Себе Стратмор купил Скайпейджер, который запрограммировал на ту же частоту.