File Name: emerging and reemerging diseases in india .zip
- Emerging & re-emerging infections in India: An overview
- Emerging and re-emerging bacterial diseases in India
- Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases: a potential pandemic threat
Infectious diseases are a significant burden on public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. They have for centuries been among the leading causes of death and disability and presented growing challenges to health security and human progress. The threat posed by infectious diseases is further deepened by the continued emergence of new, unrecognized, and old infectious disease epidemics of global impact.
Emerging & re-emerging infections in India: An overview
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Infectious diseases remain as the major causes of human and animal morbidity and mortality leading to significant healthcare expenditure in India. The country has experienced the outbreaks and epidemics of many infectious diseases. However, enormous successes have been obtained against the control of major epidemic diseases, such as malaria, plague, leprosy and cholera, in the past. The country's vast terrains of extreme geo-climatic differences and uneven population distribution present unique patterns of distribution of viral diseases. Dynamic interplays of biological, socio-cultural and ecological factors, together with novel aspects of human-animal interphase, pose additional challenges with respect to the emergence of infectious diseases. The important challenges faced in the control and prevention of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases range from understanding the impact of factors that are necessary for the emergence, to development of strengthened surveillance systems that can mitigate human suffering and death. In this article, the major emerging and re-emerging viral infections of public health importance have been reviewed that have already been included in the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme.
Emerging and re-emerging bacterial diseases in India
The incidence of emerging infectious diseases in humans has increased within the recent past or threatens to increase in the near future. Over 30 new infectious agents have been detected worldwide in the last three decades; 60 per cent of these are of zoonotic origin. Developing countries such as India suffer disproportionately from the burden of infectious diseases given the confluence of existing environmental, socio-economic, and demographic factors. In the recent past, India has seen outbreaks of eight organisms of emerging and re-emerging diseases in various parts of the country, six of these are of zoonotic origin. Prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases will increasingly require the application of sophisticated epidemiologic and molecular biologic technologies, changes in human behaviour, a national policy on early detection of and rapid response to emerging infections and a plan of action. WHO has made several recommendations for national response mechanisms.
Infectious viral diseases are the never-ending challenge that can emerge or re-emerge in unpredictable regions and at unpredictable times. Human beings are facing an intractable problem in unexpected time and place due to these viral diseases. Human, ecological, and viral related factors are the contributing factors in the emergence or re-emergence of viral infectious disease. Travel, mass gathering, urbanization, fragile or deteriorated health systems, weak disease surveillance system, limited laboratory diagnostic capacity, war, migration, poor hygienic practice, illegal animal trade, hunting and eating infected animals are among human-related factors that contribute in emergence or re-emergence of viral infectious disease. Deforestation, climate change, invasion of animal habitats, the building of dams and intensive agricultural practice are contributing factors to the emergence or re-emergence of viral infectious disease. The last but not least risk factor for emergence or re-emergence of infectious viral disease is the virus-related factors. RNA viruses are deadly pathogens since they are evolving rapidly in any hostile conditions and exhibit error-prone gene replication.
Infectious diseases continue to impose unpredictable burdens on global health and economies, a subject that requires constant research and updates. The results show that wild animals mainly bats, birds and primates play an important role in the dissemination of etiological agents mainly viruses, as a new coronavirus called Novel Coronavirus in extensive geographic regions. Moreover, these wild animal organisms can act as the site for essential biotic synergy among several pathogenic microorganisms, promoting a higher rate of adaptation, mutation and even genetic recombination, with consequent stimulation of new strains and subtypes, inducing new infectious agents with unknown virulent potential. In conclusion, the monitoring of these diseases and adequate preparation for possible epidemics and pandemics are fundamental conditions for the mitigation of their future impact. The zoonotic threat of these etiological agents and the impact on public health can be enormous as shown by the ongoing epidemic of novel coronavirus nCoV infections. Impact Factor 1.
Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases: a potential pandemic threat
There has been a remarkable progress in the prevention, control and even eradication of infectious diseases with improved hygiene and development of antimicrobials and vaccines. However, infectious diseases still remain a leading cause of global disease burden with high morbidity and mortality especially in the developing world. Furthermore, there have been threats of new diseases during the past three decades due to the evolution and adaptation of microbes and the re-emergence of old diseases due to the development of antimicrobial resistance and the capacity to spread to new geographic areas. The impact of the emerging and re-emerging diseases in India has been tremendous at socioeconomic and public health levels.
Коммандер. Нет. Сьюзан словно окаменела, ничего не понимая. Эхо выстрела слилось с царившим вокруг хаосом. Сознание гнало ее вперед, но ноги не слушались. Коммандер.
Говорит коммандер Тревор Стратмор. У нас в шифровалке человек взят в заложники. Быстро пришлите сюда людей. Да, да, прямо. К тому же у нас вышел из строя генератор. Я требую направить сюда всю энергию из внешних источников.
Не упусти. - Спасибо, шеф. Голос шефа из смешливого вдруг стал жестким: - Сьюзан, я звоню потому, что ты нужна мне. Срочно. Она попыталась собраться с мыслями. - Сегодня суббота, сэр.
- Количество жертв. Ущерб в долларах.