anatomy and physiology of excretory system pdf

Anatomy And Physiology Of Excretory System Pdf

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When many people look at the cardiovascular system they often tend to accentuate the positive contents in the blood—food, water, and oxygen—and rarely focus on the negative. True, I did talk about CO 2 and the lungs, but what about other wastes, particularly nitrogenous wastes from the breakdown of proteins.

Anatomy and Function of the Urinary System

Click Image to Enlarge. The body takes nutrients from food and changes them to energy. After the body has taken the food components that it needs, waste products are left behind in the bowel and in the blood. The kidney and urinary systems help the body to get rid of liquid waste called urea. Urea is produced when foods containing protein such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the blood to the kidneys.

This is where it is removed, along with water and other wastes in the form of urine. The kidneys have other important functions. They control blood pressure and produce the hormone erythropoietin. This hormone controls red blood cell production in the bone marrow.

The kidneys also control the acid-base balance and conserve fluids. Two kidneys. Their function is to:. The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons.

Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries glomerulus and a small tube called a renal tubule. Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney. Two ureters. Muscles in the ureter walls keep tightening and relaxing. This forces urine downward, away from the kidneys. If urine backs up, or is allowed to stand still, a kidney infection can develop.

About every 10 to 15 seconds, small amounts of urine are emptied into the bladder from the ureters. This triangle-shaped, hollow organ is located in the lower belly. It is held in place by ligaments that are attached to other organs and the pelvic bones. The bladder's walls relax and expand to store urine. They contract and flatten to empty urine through the urethra. The typical healthy adult bladder can store up to 2 cups of urine for 2 to 5 hours.

Two sphincter muscles. Nerves in the bladder. The nerves alert a person when it is time to urinate, or empty the bladder. This tube allows urine to pass outside the body. The brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten.

This squeezes urine out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincter muscles to relax to let urine exit the bladder through the urethra. When all the signals happen in the correct order, normal urination happens.

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Click Image to Enlarge. The body takes nutrients from food and changes them to energy. After the body has taken the food components that it needs, waste products are left behind in the bowel and in the blood. The kidney and urinary systems help the body to get rid of liquid waste called urea. Urea is produced when foods containing protein such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the blood to the kidneys. This is where it is removed, along with water and other wastes in the form of urine.

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Published on Mar 26, Anatomy and physiology of the Urinary system by Dipali Harkhani. SlideShare Explore Search You.

Figure The urinary system plays a vital part in maintaining homeostasis of water and electrolyte concentrations within the body. The kidneys produce urine that contains metabolic waste products, including the nitrogenous compounds urea and uric acid, excess ions and some drugs. The first sections of this chapter explore the structures and functions of the organs described above. In the final section the consequences of abnormal functioning of the various parts of the urinary system on body function are considered. The kidneys Fig.


Human Anatomy & Physiology: Urinary System; Ziser Lecture Notes, 1. The Urinary System. Urine production and elimination are one of the most.


Anatomy and Function of the Urinary System

Quality minimal. The Urinary System is a group of organs in the body concerned with filtering out excess fluid and other substances from the bloodstream. The substances are filtered out from the body in the form of urine.

Once inside the system, you can zoom and rotate your virtual skeleton. Eleven systems in total are able to view and examine. This site not only includes images of and information on the above listed systems, but it also includes interactive drills and practice questions for students. This site not only includes images, but also self-quizzing options for the excretory system as well.

The excretory system is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary materials from the body fluids of an organism , so as to help maintain internal chemical homeostasis and prevent damage to the body. The dual function of excretory systems is the elimination of the waste products of metabolism and to drain the body of used up and broken down components in a liquid and gaseous state. In humans and other amniotes mammals , birds and reptiles most of these substances leave the body as urine and to some degree exhalation, mammals also expel them through sweating.

Excretory system

Kidney and urinary system parts and their functions

 Мне срочно нужно такси. Охранник покачал головой. - Demasiado temperano. Слишком рано. Слишком рано. Беккер беззвучно выругался. Уже два часа утра.

Human Physiology/The Urinary System

Сьюзан повернулась, и Хейл, пропуская ее вперед, сделал широкий взмах рукой, точно приветствуя ее возвращение в Третий узел.

Немедленно. В другой стороне комнаты зазвонил телефон. Это был Джабба. ГЛАВА 107 Сьюзан понятия не имела, сколько прошло времени.

Беккер быстро допил остатки клюквенного сока, поставил стакан на мокрую столешницу и надел пиджак. Пилот достал из летного костюма плотный конверт. - Мне поручено передать вам .

Хейл сдавил горло Сьюзан. - Выпустите меня, или она умрет. Тревор Стратмор заключил в своей жизни достаточно сделок, когда на кону были высочайшие ставки, чтобы понимать: Хейл взвинчен и крайне опасен.

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