diabetes signs and symptoms pdf

Diabetes Signs And Symptoms Pdf

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Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar.

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Diabetes Type 2

Diabetes mellitus is a serious metabolic disease, affecting people of all geographic, ethnic or racial origin and its prevalence is increasing globally 1. Burden from this costly disease is high on the low and middle income countries LMIC where the impacts of modernization and urbanization have caused marked adverse changes in lifestyle parameters. In , of the estimated million people with diabetes globally, more than 80 per cent lived in LMIC.

It was estimated that India had This number is predicted to increase to million by unless steps are taken to prevent new cases of diabetes 1. Primary prevention of diabetes is feasible and strategies such as lifestyle modification are shown to be effective in populations of varied ethnicity 2 , 3. However, for implementation of the strategies at the population level, national programmes which are culturally and socially acceptable and practical have to be formulated which are currently lacking in most of the developed and developing countries.

Early diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapeutic measures yield the desired glycaemic outcomes and prevent the vascular complications 4.

Type 2 diabetes which accounts for per cent of all diabetes has a latent, asymptomatic period of sub-clinical stages which often remains undiagnosed for several years 1. As a result, in many patients the vascular complications are already present at the time of diagnosis of diabetes, which is often detected by an opportunistic testing. Asian populations in general, particularly Asian Indians have a high risk of developing diabetes at a younger age when compared with the western populations 5.

Therefore, it is essential that efforts are made to diagnose diabetes early so that the long term sufferings by the patients and the societal burden can be considerably mitigated. Many studies have shown that awareness about the diabetes and its complications is poor among the general population specially in the rural areas 6 , 7.

There is an urgent need to create awareness among the population regarding diabetes and about the serious consequences of this chronic disorder. Epidemiological data from India have shown the presence of a number of risk factors which can be easily identified by simple non-invasive risk scores 8 , 9.

The major risk factors are listed in Box 1. The signs and symptoms of diabetes are disregarded by many because of the chronic progression of the disease. People do not consider this as a serious problem because unlike many other diseases the consequences of hyperglycaemia are not manifested immediately. People are not aware that damage can start several years before symptoms become noticeable.

This is unfortunate because recognition of early symptoms can help to get the disease under control immediately and to prevent vascular complications. Considering the asymptomatic nature of type 2 diabetes in the early stages, it is essential that the people are educated on its warning signs Box 2. The classic symptoms of diabetes such as polyuria, polydypsia and polyphagia occur commonly in type 1 diabetes, which has a rapid development of severe hyperglycaemia and also in type 2 diabetes with very high levels of hyperglycaemia.

Severe weight loss is common only in type 1 diabetes or if type 2 diabetes remains undetected for a long period. Unexplained weight loss, fatigue and restlessness and body pain are also common signs of undetected diabetes. Symptoms that are mild or have gradual development could also remain unnoticed.

A person of Asian origin aged 35 yr or more with two or more of the above risk factors, should undergo a screening test for diabetes. An oral glucose tolerance test OGTT is commonly used as the screening test Presence of pre-diabetes is indicated by HbA 1 c values between 5. Screening for undiagnosed T2DM is recommended at the first prenatal visit in women with above risk factors, using standard diagnostic method criteria. Screening for gestational diabetes GDM at wk of gestation is recommended in women who do not have previous history of diabetes, as GDM remains asymptomatic A history of GDM carries a high risk for developing diabetes.

Even prediabetic stages such as IFG and IGT carry high risk for vascular complications such as cardiovascular diseases. The recent estimates by the International Diabetes Federation IDF 1 indicate that globally there are more than million people 6. Among them, more than 70 per cent live in LMIC 1. Some persons with prediabetes experience reactive hypoglycaemia hours after a meal.

This is a sign of impaired insulin metabolism indicative of impending occurrence of diabetes. Therefore, periodic medical check-up in people with such signs or risk factors for diabetes would reduce the hazards involved in having undiagnosed diabetes. It would help improve the health status of a large number of people who otherwise would be silent sufferers from the metabolic aberrations associated with diabetes.

Awareness about the signs and symptoms and periodic screening especially in the presence of risk factors and warning signs of diabetes, would go a long way in preventing new cases of diabetes by providing an opportunity to intervene at the stage of prediabetes. It is evident that diabetes can be prevented among prediabetic individuals by improvements in physical activity and diet habits.

Such strategies will also prevent development of diabetic complications to a great extent. Patient empowerment is vital in diabetes management.

This can be done through patient education and sharing information on management and preventive aspects of diabetes. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Indian J Med Res. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This editorial is published on the occasion of World Diabetes Day — November 14, This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Risk factors for diabetes Many studies have shown that awareness about the diabetes and its complications is poor among the general population specially in the rural areas 6 , 7. Box 1 Major risk factors for type 2 diabetes in Indians. Open in a separate window. Signs and symptoms of diabetes The signs and symptoms of diabetes are disregarded by many because of the chronic progression of the disease.

Box 2 Warning signs of diabetes. Screening test for diabetes A person of Asian origin aged 35 yr or more with two or more of the above risk factors, should undergo a screening test for diabetes. Significance of identifying prediabetes Even prediabetic stages such as IFG and IGT carry high risk for vascular complications such as cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions Awareness about the signs and symptoms and periodic screening especially in the presence of risk factors and warning signs of diabetes, would go a long way in preventing new cases of diabetes by providing an opportunity to intervene at the stage of prediabetes.

References 1. IDF Diabetes Atlas. International Diabetes Federation. Available from: www. International Diabetes Federation: a consensus on type 2 diabetes prevention. Diabet Med. Primary prevention of type 2 diabetes in South Asians-challenges and the way forward.

Pathophysiology of prediabetes. Curr Diab Rep. Diabetes in Asia. Awareness about diabetes and its complications in the general and diabetic population in a city in southern India. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. Derivation and validation of diabetes risk score for urban Asian Indians. Mohan V, Anbalagan VP. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. World Health Oorganization. Part 1: Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus.

Geneva: World Health Oorganization; Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Report of a WHOo Consultation. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care. N Engl J Med. Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy.

Everything You Need to Know About Diabetes

Are you concerned that you or your loved one may have diabetes? Although the signs of diabetes can begin to show early, sometimes it takes a person a while to recognize the symptoms. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease where the pancreas stops producing insulin—a hormone that allows the body to get energy from food. Its onset has nothing to do with diet or lifestyle. As a result, your pancreas makes extra insulin to compensate, but over time it is unable to keep up.


What are the symptoms of diabetes? People who think they might have diabetes must visit a physician for diagnosis. They might have SOME or NONE of the.


Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a serious metabolic disease, affecting people of all geographic, ethnic or racial origin and its prevalence is increasing globally 1. Burden from this costly disease is high on the low and middle income countries LMIC where the impacts of modernization and urbanization have caused marked adverse changes in lifestyle parameters. In , of the estimated million people with diabetes globally, more than 80 per cent lived in LMIC.

Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as diabetes, is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar. The hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into your cells to be stored or used for energy. Untreated high blood sugar from diabetes can damage your nerves, eyes, kidneys, and other organs. A rare condition called diabetes insipidus is not related to diabetes mellitus, although it has a similar name. Each type of diabetes has unique symptoms, causes, and treatments.

Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar glucose. Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues.

Biochemicophysiological Mechanisms Underlying Signs and Symptoms Associated with Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a disorder in which the body does not produce enough or respond normally to insulin, causing blood sugar glucose levels to be abnormally high. Diabetes damages blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, chronic kidney disease, and vision loss. People with diabetes need to follow a healthy diet that is low in refined carbohydrates including sugar , saturated fat, and processed foods. They also need to exercise and usually take drugs to lower blood sugar levels. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder in which the amount of sugar in the blood is elevated. Doctors often use the full name diabetes mellitus, rather than diabetes alone, to distinguish this disorder from diabetes insipidus. Diabetes insipidus is a relatively rare disorder that does not affect blood glucose levels but, just like diabetes mellitus, also causes increased urination.

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease. It is characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is also called type 2 diabetes mellitus and adult-onset diabetes. That's because it used to start almost always in middle- and late-adulthood. However, more and more children and teens are developing this condition. Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes, and is really a different disease.


Common Signs and Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes: • Urinating a lot (as the body tries to flush out excess glucose in the blood). • Feeling very thirsty (due to.


Types of diabetes

Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar , levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. Over time, high blood glucose can lead to serious problems with your heart , eyes , kidneys , nerves , and gums and teeth.

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. It happens when blood sugar levels rise due to problems with the use or production of insulin. It can appear at any age, but it is more likely to occur after the age of 45 years. This article looks at the early signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes , the risk factors, and potential complications. People with type 2 diabetes do not make or use insulin correctly.

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