Wastewater Treatment Concepts And Design Approach Pdf
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Wastewater Treatment: Concepts and Design Approach
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Operation of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Karia and R. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing trom the publishor.
Published by Asoke K. Concept of Mass Load 17 2. Design of Approach Channel 93 5. Flotation Systems 6. Bio-kinetic Coefficients Growth Constants 7. Design Examples 84 Extended Aeration System 8.
Though there are many excellent textbooks that elucidate the theory and design of wastewater treatment plants, it was nevertheless felt that there was a need for another book that would not only deal the design approach but also cover the computational methods for the design of all units of a wastewater treatment plant.
Though the idea of writing such a book was conceived by the senior author during his teaching years, we decided to put this project into practice as many of our students really appreciated the introduction of design computations in classroom lectures. The main objectives of this book are therefore threefold: a To highlight the basic principles of operation of the processes that are normally used for wastewater treatment.
It should however be noted that this book is not a manual or handbook for the design of wastewater treatment plants. Students and other users of this book should understand very clearly that a complete and exhaustive design of a wastewater treatment plant requires a vast experience and knowledge of mechanical and electrical elements of plant units or reactors, and know-how of the factors related to the field conditions.
The illustrated design examples in the book, however, will provide the necessary guidelines on how to apply the design concepts in real situations, mainly to determine the size of the teatment units. Chapters have been organized in logical order starting from the design fundamentals to the order in which the treatment units appear in a conventional wastewater treatment plant.
Chapter 1 introduces the basic concepts related to wastewater, the need of treatment and the types of treatment systems that are normally selected to treat domestic wastewater. While Chapter 2 covers the basic design considerations, Chapter 3 explains the general procedure for the design computations. Chapter 4 deals with the types of reactors most generally used and the reactions that normally take place in the reactors. The aerobic and anaerobic biological processes and the design steps for the conventional secondary treatment units are covered in Chapiers 7 through Finally, Chapter 11 deals with the design aspects of sludge treatment.
The most frequently used design criteria have been listed just ahead of the design examples for ease of reference. Tn all, about a hundred design examples have been included along with their solutions. A lot of significant theoretical and computational information has been presented in NOTE boxes while useful design hints have been provided in TIP boxes. The authors have referred to many technical journals, reports, papers, manuals of Practice, textbooks, etc.
The design criteria suggested as guidelines in this book are, therefore, based on such references and the publications of many research workers and the field experience of many engineers. These criteria may be found varying in the references provided.
Therefore, it is the normal practice to determine the design criteria based on laboratory studies. As a prerequisite, it is presumed that the user of this book would have an adequate theoretical background related to chemistry and microbiology of design aspects of wastewater treatment. It is hoped that the book will be useful to the students of civil engineering and environmental engineering for the course in wastewater engineering.
Practising engineers as well as governmental authorities involved in the design of wastewater treatment plants should also find this book beneficial. We also wish to thank our colleague Dr. Special appreciation is due to our ex-students, Mr. Jigesh Mehta, M. Mehali Mehta, for diligently going through the manuscript and suggesting changes to the text and computations of design examples.
Technically, however, wastewater can be defined as any water or liquid that contains impurities or pollutants in the form of solids, liquids or gases or their combinations in such a concentration that is harmful if disposed into the environment. Q Impurities in wastewater are mainly due to the presence of solids in the water.
The solids may be organic or inorganic in nature and may be present in suspended, colloidal, dissolved or in the various forms of their combinations. QO The final discharge of wastewater will normally be either into the body of water or onto the land, The receiving bodies of water may be streams, lakes, ponds, canals, rivers, seas, estuaries, etc.
Thus, final disposal of wastewater except for volatilization of certain pollutants is always into a water body— surface or subsurface. Domestic Wastewater Domestic wastewater, also known as municipal wastewater or sanitary wastewater or simply sewage, is the used water, which has been discharged from the residential, commercial and institutional zones of a city or a town or community and collected through sewerage system.
Sometimes, partially-treated liquid wastes from small industries are also collected and discharged into the sanitary sewers and thus included with domestic wastewater. In general, domestic wastewater contains organic and inorganic solids and microorganisms, mainly bacteria. The composition of wastewater will depend on the source of its generation. Domestic wastewater, in general, is Industrial Wastewater Normally the wastewaters generated by large and medium scale industries are called industrial wastewaters.
These wastewaters vary in quantity and quality from industry to industry and from process to process for the same industry. In general, a majority of manufacturing dustries generate a large volume of high strength wastewaters. Pkaem As there are numerous kinds of industries and wastewater characteristics are process dependant, comprehensive coverage of design calculations for industrial wastewater is beyond the scope of this book.
If the objective is to simply dispose of the final effluent into the body of water receiving streams , or onto the land, the concentration s of specific constituent s is reduced only up to acceptable limits prescribed by the statutory body like Pollution Control Boards or local authorities such as municipalities.
On the other hand, to reuse the treated wastewater in some industrial process, the concentration of specific constituent is reduced to a particular level or completely removed as per the need. Since impurities are normally due to the presence of solids in wastewater, treatment of wastewater, in general, means the reduction or removal of the solids from wastewater.
Based on the means used, treatment methods have been broadly classified as unit operations and unit processes as described briefly in the following paragraphs [5, 9, 15, 20]. Unit Operations The means of treatment in which the application of physical forces predominates are known as unit operations.
Major treatment methods falling under this category are as follows: Screening Mixing Flocculation Sedimentation Floatation Elutriation Vacuum filtration Heat transfer and drying cooooo0oo 1.
Based on the type of agent used, these are further classified as follows:. Simon Acero. Niong David. Laurentiu Gheorghita. Daniel Rivaldi. Nguyen Phuc Pham. Sugumar Panneer Selvam. Amin Mojiri. Arvinthran Raja Kumaran. David Lambert. Eduardo Carvalho. More From Nguyen Phuc Pham. Introduction to Environmental Eng - Gilbert M.
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ISBN 13: 9788120347359
Customer Care. This thoroughly revised Second Edition presents a comprehensive account of the principles of operation and design of wastewater treatment plants. Beginning with the basic concepts Read more This thoroughly revised Second Edition presents a comprehensive account of the principles of operation and design of wastewater treatment plants. Beginning with the basic concepts of treatment of wastewater and the design considerations required of an efficient treatment plant, the book moves on to spotlight the design criteria for domestic wastewater treatment units. In essence, the text gives the detailed procedures for design computations of all units of a wastewater treatment plant.
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Wastewater treatment is a process used to remove contaminants from wastewater or sewage and convert it into an effluent that can be returned to the water cycle with acceptable impact on the environment, or reused for various purposes called water reclamation. Pollutants in wastewater are removed, converted or broken down during the treatment process. The treatment of wastewater is part of the overarching field of sanitation. Sanitation also includes the management of human waste and solid waste as well as stormwater drainage management. The processes involved in waste-water treatment include physical processes such as settlement or flotation and biological processes such as aerated lagoons , activated sludge , or bio-films in trickling filters.
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Save extra with 2 Offers. Karia, R. Christian Book Summary: This thoroughly revised Second Edition presents a comprehensive account of the principles of operation and design of wastewater treatment plants. Beginning with the basic concepts of treatment of wastewater and the design considerations required of an efficient treatment plant, the book moves on to spotlight the design criteria for domestic wastewater treatment units. In essence, the text gives the detailed procedures for design computations of all units of a wastewater treatment plant.
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Beginning with the basic concepts of treatment of wastewater and the design considerations required of an efficient treatment plant, the book moves on to spotlight the design criteria for domestic wastewater treatment units.