Ethical And Practical Principles Of Community Development Pdf
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Mikesell supervised the abstract reviews, collated results, and drafted the introduction and Tables 3 and 4 and their corresponding text.
- Ethical Community-Engaged Research: A Literature Review
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Ethical leadership demonstrates a high regard for values.
Ethical Community-Engaged Research: A Literature Review
The nature of community-based participatory research CBPR poses distinctive ethical challenges. The study aimed to explore ethical issues and principles potentially arising when conducting CBPR. Required data were gathered through systematic literature review and semi-structured interviews. Representatives of community, academia, and nongovernmental organizations NGOs participated in our study. Ten interviews with representatives of partner organizations, four group interviews with academic staff, and four with representatives of community were conducted.
Repeated thematic analysis was used to elicit ethics-related overarching themes from transcribed interviews. As recommendations, these themes were then organized into a set of CBPR-related ethical issues and principles. Four CBPR ethical guidelines including articles were selected from a systematic review. Overarching themes relating to ethical principles which emerged from interviews were as follows: Trust, transparency and accountability, equity and inclusion, power imbalance, tolerance and conflict management, and attention to cultural sensitivity.
Practical principles that emerged included: Consensus rather than informed consent, ownership of data and research achievements, and sustainability and maintenance of relationships.
According to findings and in comparison to international guidelines, the present study put more emphasis on cultural sensitivity and sustainability as CBPR ethical tangles. Community-based participatory research ethical challenges are of the same kind in most parts of the world. However, some discrepancies exist that calls for local scrutiny.
Future use and critic of current explored ethical issues and principles are highly encouraged. Community-based participatory research CBPR is one of the most promising fields of inquiry in health research. As a result and due to the collaborative nature of CBPR and complexity of related issues, some ethical challenges in conduct of this kind of research emerge.
Hence, considering increasing popularity of CBPR and, concurrently, dearth of ethical sets of principles on CBPR, especially in developing countries, this study aimed to explore and propound ethical issues and principles for CBPR according to themes emerged from experiences of Iran's CBPR case studies partners. The ethical principles can be used in future participatory research pursuits in the countries with similar situations. A qualitative study was used to explore and propound a CBPR-related ethical issues and principles.
Required data was gathered through systematic review of the literature and semi-structured interviews. To develop the guideline, four following stages were taken: 1 To build a team to work on the set of ethical issues, et, 2 to review existing ethical guidelines, and related articles, 3 to conduct interviews, and 4 to revise, and approve the ethical set of issues and principles.
Indeed, a thematic analysis was conducted to explore, unravel, and use emerging themes. The team that participated in the exploration of the ethical issues and principles consisted of a technical steering committee.
They had at least more than 3 years of experience in CBPR and were interested to participate. In the second phase of the project, during a meeting with the team, it was agreed upon to propose a set of ethical principles that can be used in two ways: First, as a tool for adjustment of CBPR projects in IRBs of academic and nonacademic institutes with those principles, and second, as a guide for the conduct of CBPR projects by community researchers in the field.
In the third phase of research, a systematic review of the literature was conducted to find the existing relevant ethical guidelines and articles. They were then assessed by steering committee according to their comprehensiveness and feasibility. Ethical principles, ethical issues and the solutions to these issues were subsequently used as interview guides. Then, in the fourth phase, ten interviews with representatives of partner organizations, four group interviews with academic staff, and four group interviews with representatives of communities involved in CBPR projects were conducted.
Team members, especially civil society members, were trained to conduct the interviews in a consistent way. To include all possible partners of CBPR in the interviews, maximum variation sampling was used. There were as many as 6—8 persons in each interview group. Interviews continued until no new information came through. Having informed consent of the interviewees, the interviews were recorded and transcribed immediately after they were done.
Participants were assured that their anonymity to participate will be preserved throughout the study. In the fifth phase of research, repeated thematic analysis of transcribed interviews was done, and overarching themes were extracted. Peer debriefing and member checking was used to confirm the credibility of extracted themes.
To ensure the external audit of the study, a researcher not involved in the research process examined both the process and product of the research. Finally, the steering committee revised, and approved the ethical set of issues and principles.
Based on a systematic review conducted by the technical committee, four guidelines including articles on ethical issues in CBPR were selected. These principles were used to develop the questions to be used in interviews. Overarching themes emerged from repetitive thematic analysis of interviews are shown in Table 2.
Summary of ethical and practice principles of existing guidelines on CBPR based on a systematic review. Concisely speaking, ethical principles are as follows: Trust, transparency and accountability, equity and inclusion, balance distribution of power among partners of the study, believe in collaborative and participatory research, humility and co-learning, respect for diversity, tolerance and conflict resolution, attention to cultural sensitivity, and commitment to personal and professional responsibilities.
Implementation principles of the guideline are as follows: Consensus on expectations, preparing cooperative agreements, consensus rather than informed consent, courtesy of personal information, privacy, anonymity, ownership of data and research achievements, share of knowledge and knowledge translation, sustainability, and maintenance of developed relationships.
But when the research project meets its ends, researchers leave the community while community members hope for expansion of the research. There is an ethical issue here, that is, we researchers cannot leave the community while the process of empowerment is not completed.
This leads to financial transparency of researchers to community members. For example, due to cross-cultural tolerance and immigration, southern provinces in Iran are stamping ground for many people and strangers, so it is easy to conduct community work there. The present study aimed to explore and come up with a set of ethical principles and issues for CBPR via a participatory approach.
Trust, transparency, and accountability were of the common themes that three interview groups mentioned as core ethical aspects of CBPR. This calls for measures of trust building as well as knowledge, information, and feedback exchange to all partners. Based on similar concerns, Schaffer's virtue ethics guide acknowledges that the participatory work is in need of professional commitment, integrity, and honesty.
Another touchy ethical issue strongly raised and emphasized by participants of the present study, especially community members were those of equity and inclusion. This emphasis can be an indication of previous experience of gruesome marginalization of nonacademic partners in classical practice of science in which ethical issues of participatory work are not of major concern.
Power-related issues were also of main ethical challenges of CBPR in views of present study participants. Disproportionate distribution of power among the partners of research is mentioned in the Mercer et al. Shared power is a democratic style through which all partners of CBPR, especially community partners, have access to sources of legitimacy, and authority.
Recognition can be an effective approach to tackle the thorny problem of power lopsidedness. As per accentuation on the power imbalance, tolerance and conflict resolution was also emphasized namely by representatives of organizations. Due to the nature of participatory research, various stakeholders with different views and perspectives attend in the process of research.
Cultural barriers were also among the main issues for conducting an ethics-informed CBPR project. Participants especially were mentally occupied with cultural sensitivities of women's, especially young ones, participation in CBPR.
It was told that any CBPR pursuit that forgets to consider norms and attitudes of participation of young girls may encounter challenges. Other studies have also focused on the importance of cultural sensitivities in CBPR projects. Sustainability and continuity of the partnership was also signified.
Community members were especially concerned with discontinuity of projects that demolish all cooperation and relation bridges built during the process. They felt that they fade into oblivion by researchers or representatives of organizations when research project is completed. Empowerment and improving self-sufficiency of all CBPR partners, maintenance of ongoing academia relations with community members, respect of leaders and local representatives after leaving the community by academicians, and keeping connection of community leaders or representatives to policy makers are some of the measures that can bring about and boost a continued and sustained partnership in CBPR.
Generally speaking, however, findings 0f the present study corroborate the principles of reviewed CBPR-related ethical guideline. Nevertheless, some differences exist between our set of ethical issues and those reviewed guidelines of which cultural sensitivity to women's participation and concern with sustainability of CBPR can be counted.
It locally shows that why it is somehow tougher to conduct CBPR projects in Iran and other similar developing countries, particularly Muslim ones. Globally, the nuances of our set of ethical issues can add items to repertoire of CBPR-related developed so far, to be considered in future intentions to develop guidelines.
However, the authors never go so far to claim that this explored and propounded ethical set is complete and needless of modifications. We are open to all queries that can enrich the set no matter who raises them. This study demonstrates that CBPR partners in Iran are experientially aware of CBPR ethical challenges, but a lack of an organized set of ethical principles and issues, especially a participative one, prevents their actions to be based on an ethically approved framework.
The authors wish to express their thanks to all of the participants in the study. Conflict of Interest: None declared.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Int J Prev Med. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence to: Mrs. Khandan Shahandeh, No. E-mail: ri. Received Jan 20; Accepted Aug This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Conclusions: Community-based participatory research ethical challenges are of the same kind in most parts of the world. Keywords: Community-based participatory research, ethics, ethical guideline. Table 1 Summary of ethical and practice principles of existing guidelines on CBPR based on a systematic review.
Open in a separate window. Table 2 Overarching themes set of ethical issues and principles emerged from interviews. Environ Justice. Governing through community allegiance: A qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research.
Crit Public Health. Clin Transl Sci. Using community-based participatory research to explore social determinants of women's mental health and barriers to help-seeking in three urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved communities.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs. Use of community-based participatory research in primary care to improve healthcare outcomes and disparities in care.
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Photo: oatsy The ethics of community engagement needs to come to the forefront of our work. Let me start with a confession. When I started to develop an undergraduate elective on community engagement at Newcastle Uni in , I included ethics in the final module because I knew I should. Now, after students from 38 different degrees have done the subject, ethics is increasingly underpinning the course.
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Он постоял в нерешительности, раздумывая, не следует ли поставить в известность начальника лаборатории безопасности. Да будь они прокляты, эти криптографы. Ничего не понимают в системах безопасности. Присяга, которую Чатрукьян принимал, поступая на службу в АНБ, стала непроизвольно прокручиваться в его голове. Он поклялся применять все свои знания, весь опыт, всю интуицию для защиты компьютеров агентства, стоивших не один миллион долларов. - Интуиция? - с вызовом проговорил .
Хватит врать! - крикнул Стратмор. - Где. Хейл сдавил горло Сьюзан. - Выпустите меня, или она умрет. Тревор Стратмор заключил в своей жизни достаточно сделок, когда на кону были высочайшие ставки, чтобы понимать: Хейл взвинчен и крайне опасен. Молодой криптограф загнал себя в угол, а от противника, загнанного в угол, можно ожидать чего угодно: он действует отчаянно и непредсказуемо. Стратмор знал, что его следующий шаг имеет решающее значение.
Шестьдесят четыре знака… Сьюзан кивнула: - Да, но они… - Она вдруг замерла. - Шестьдесят четыре буквы, - повторил Дэвид. - О мой Бог! - воскликнула Сьюзан. - Дэвид, ты просто гений. ГЛАВА 121 - Семь минут! - оповестил техник. - Восемь рядов по восемь! - возбужденно воскликнула Сьюзан. Соши быстро печатала.
Сбои техники в Третьем узле были такой редкостью, что номера ошибок в ее памяти не задерживалось. Сьюзан пролистала справочник и нашла нужный список. 19: ОШИБКА В СИСТЕМНОМ РАЗДЕЛЕ 20: СКАЧОК НАПРЯЖЕНИЯ 21: СБОЙ СИСТЕМЫ ХРАНЕНИЯ ДАННЫХ Наконец она дошла до пункта 22 и, замерев, долго всматривалась в написанное. Потом, озадаченная, снова взглянула на монитор. КОД ОШИБКИ 22 Сьюзан нахмурилась и снова посмотрела в справочник.
Иногда отвергались абсолютно безвредные файлы - на том основании, что они содержали программы, с которыми фильтры прежде не сталкивались. В этом случае сотрудники лаборатории систем безопасности тщательно изучали их вручную и, убедившись в их чистоте, запускали в ТРАНСТЕКСТ, минуя фильтры программы Сквозь строй. Компьютерные вирусы столь же разнообразны, как и те, что поражают человека.
Читайте медленно и точно! - приказал Джабба. - Одна неточность, и все мы погибли. Фонтейн сурово взглянул на. Уж о чем о чем, а о стрессовых ситуациях директор знал. Он был уверен, что чрезмерный нажим не приведет ни к чему хорошему.
- Висячие строки в источнике. Альфа-группы повсюду. Джабба не шелохнулся. - Мы ищем цифровой ключ, черт его дери.
А потом мы позвоним директору. - Замечательно. - Он даже застонал. - Я позвоню Стратмору и попрошу прислать нам письменное подтверждение.
Сьюзан взглянула на ВР. Последний защитный слой был уже почти невидим. - Вот оно! - воскликнула Соши.