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- Antibiotic Classes and Mechanisms of Resistance
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- Antibiotic Classification & Mechanism
Antibiotic Classes and Mechanisms of Resistance
An antibiotic is a type of antimicrobial substance active against bacteria. It is the most important type of antibacterial agent for fighting bacterial infections , and antibiotic medications are widely used in the treatment and prevention of such infections. A limited number of antibiotics also possess antiprotozoal activity. However, both classes have the same goal of killing or preventing the growth of microorganisms, and both are included in antimicrobial chemotherapy. Antibiotics have been used since ancient times.
Antibiotics are drugs used to treat bacterial infections. They are ineffective against viral infections and most other infections. Antibiotics either kill microorganisms or stop them from reproducing, allowing the body's natural defenses to eliminate them. Although doctors try to use antibiotics for specific bacterial infections, they sometimes start antibiotics without waiting for tests that identify the specific bacteria. Antibiotics can have side effects, such as upset stomach, diarrhea, and, in women, vaginal yeast infections. Antibiotics are grouped into classes based on their chemical structure. However, antibiotics within each class often affect the body differently and may be effective against different bacteria.
Antibiotic , chemical substance produced by a living organism, generally a microorganism, that is detrimental to other microorganisms. Antibiotics commonly are produced by soil microorganisms and probably represent a means by which organisms in a complex environment , such as soil, control the growth of competing microorganisms. Microorganisms that produce antibiotics useful in preventing or treating disease include the bacteria and the fungi. Antibiotics came into worldwide prominence with the introduction of penicillin in Since then they have revolutionized the treatment of bacterial infections in humans and other animals. They are, however, ineffective against viruses. In Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming noticed that colonies of bacteria growing on a culture plate had been unfavourably affected by a mold , Penicillium notatum , which had contaminated the culture.
Reviewed: February 14th Published: February 27th Pathogenic microorganisms can infect tissues of human by destroying cellular functions. Microorganisms themselves or their toxins can damage host cells. Microbial infections are treated with antimicrobials by either inhibiting the microbial growth or killing the microorganism. Antibiotics are widely being used not only in the treatment of acute and chronic infections, but also in the prophylactic treatment [ 1 ]. Targets of antimicrobials are cell membrane, cell wall, protein synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis, and biological metabolic compound synthesis Figure 1 [ 2 ]. Over usage of antibiotics, mutations in the genes, carrying resistance genes in chromosomes and plasmids, gaining resistance genes carried by transposons, insertion sequences IS and conjugation from the same or other species of microorganisms cause bacteria develop resistance to antimicrobials [ 3 ].
Infections account for a major cause of death throughout the developing world. This is mainly due to the emergence of newer infectious agents and more specifically due to the appearance of antimicrobial resistance. With time, the bacteria have become smarter and along with it, massive imprudent usage of antibiotics in clinical practice has resulted in resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial resistance is recognized as a major problem in the treatment of microbial infections. Determination of bacterial resistance to antibiotics of all classes phenotypes and mutations that are responsible for bacterial resistance to antibiotics genetic analysis are helpful. Better understanding of the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance will help clinicians regarding usage of antibiotics in different situations. This review discusses the mechanism of action and resistance development in commonly used antimicrobials.
Antibiotic Classification & Mechanism
Antibiotics are small molecules that stop bacterial growth or cause bacterial death, depending on concentration. Antibacterial agents ; Antimicrobial agents ; Bactericidal agent ; Bacteriostatic agent. Since their discovery, antibiotics have helped millions of people overcome previously lethal bacterial infections, and these drugs are considered among the greatest of medical achievements. Both natural and synthetic antibiotics are used to treat or prevent bacterial infections in humans and domesticated animals.
Infections account for a major cause of death throughout the developing world. This is mainly due to the emergence of newer infectious agents and more specifically due to the appearance of antimicrobial resistance. With time, the bacteria have become smarter and along with it, massive imprudent usage of antibiotics in clinical practice has resulted in resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial agents.
Compare the two classes of antibiotics: bactericidal and bacteriostatic antibiotic.
Но… - Сьюзан еле обрела дар речи. - Если оба элемента - уран, то как мы найдем различие между. - А вдруг Танкадо ошибся? - вмешался Фонтейн. - Быть может, он не знал, что бомбы были одинаковые. - Нет! - отрезала Сьюзан.
Он немедленно включил монитор и повернулся к графику дежурств на стене. - Чья смена? - громко спросил он, пробегая глазами список. Согласно расписанию, в полночь должен был заступить на двойную смену новый сотрудник по имени Зейденберг. Чатрукьян еще раз обвел глазами пустую лабораторию и нахмурился. - Где же он, черт возьми. Глядя на оживающий монитор, он подумал, известно ли Стратмору, что в лаборатории систем безопасности нет ни души. Подходя к шифровалке, он успел заметить, что шторы кабинета шефа задернуты.
- Что происходит. С какой стати университетский профессор… Это не университетские дела. Я позвоню и все объясню. Мне в самом деле пора идти, они связи, обещаю. - Дэвид! - крикнула .
Клюквенный сок и капелька водки. Беккер поблагодарил. Отпил глоток и чуть не поперхнулся. Ничего себе капелька. В голове у нее стучало.
Он немного сонный, мадам.
Откуда такая уверенность. - Не я один его ищу. Американская разведка тоже идет по следу.
На пальцах ничего. Резким движением Халохот развернул безжизненное тело и вскрикнул от ужаса. Перед ним был не Дэвид Беккер.