File Name: blood groups and blood transfusion .zip
- Blood Groups and Blood Transfusions in Dogs
- Blood transfusions: What to know
- Blood groups systems
- Getting a Blood Transfusion
International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period.
Blood Groups and Blood Transfusions in Dogs
A blood type also known as a blood group is a classification of blood , based on the presence and absence of antibodies and inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells RBCs. These antigens may be proteins , carbohydrates , glycoproteins , or glycolipids , depending on the blood group system.
Some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues. Several of these red blood cell surface antigens can stem from one allele or an alternative version of a gene and collectively form a blood group system. Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents. A complete blood type would describe each of the 38 blood groups, and an individual's blood type is one of many possible combinations of blood-group antigens. Bone-marrow transplants are performed for many leukemias and lymphomas , among other diseases.
If a person receives bone marrow from someone who is a different ABO type e. Some blood types are associated with inheritance of other diseases; for example, the Kell antigen is sometimes associated with McLeod syndrome. The ABO blood group system involves two antigens and two antibodies found in human blood. The two antigens are antigen A and antigen B. The two antibodies are antibody A and antibody B. The antigens are present on the red blood cells and the antibodies in the serum.
Regarding the antigen property of the blood all human beings can be classified into 4 groups, those with antigen A group A , those with antigen B group B , those with both antigen A and B group AB and those with neither antigen group O. The antibodies present together with the antigens are found as follows:. There is an agglutination reaction between similar antigen and antibody for example, antigen A agglutinates the antibody A and antigen B agglutinates the antibody B.
Thus, transfusion can be considered safe as long as the serum of the recipient does not contain antibodies for the blood cell antigens of the donor. The ABO system is the most important blood-group system in human-blood transfusion. The associated anti-A and anti-B antibodies are usually immunoglobulin M , abbreviated IgM , antibodies.
It has been hypothesized that ABO IgM antibodies are produced in the first years of life by sensitization to environmental substances such as food, bacteria , and viruses , although blood group compatibility rules are applied to newborn and infants as a matter of practice.
The Rh system Rh meaning Rhesus is the second most significant blood-group system in human-blood transfusion with currently 50 antigens. The most significant Rh antigen is the D antigen, because it is the most likely to provoke an immune system response of the five main Rh antigens. It is common for D-negative individuals not to have any anti-D IgG or IgM antibodies, because anti-D antibodies are not usually produced by sensitization against environmental substances.
However, D-negative individuals can produce IgG anti-D antibodies following a sensitizing event: possibly a fetomaternal transfusion of blood from a fetus in pregnancy or occasionally a blood transfusion with D positive RBCs. As with many other genetic traits, the distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups varies significantly between populations. As of [update] , 36 blood-group systems have been identified by the International Society for Blood Transfusion in addition to the ABO and Rh systems.
For example, an individual can be AB, D positive, and at the same time M and N positive MNS system , K positive Kell system , Le a or Le b negative Lewis system , and so on, being positive or negative for each blood group system antigen. Many of the blood group systems were named after the patients in whom the corresponding antibodies were initially encountered.
Blood group systems other than ABO and Rh pose a potential, yet relatively low, risk of complications upon mixing of blood from different people. Following is a comparison of clinically relevant characteristics of antibodies against the main human blood group systems: . Transfusion medicine is a specialized branch of hematology that is concerned with the study of blood groups, along with the work of a blood bank to provide a transfusion service for blood and other blood products.
Across the world, blood products must be prescribed by a medical doctor licensed physician or surgeon in a similar way as medicines. Much of the routine work of a blood bank involves testing blood from both donors and recipients to ensure that every individual recipient is given blood that is compatible and is as safe as possible.
If a unit of incompatible blood is transfused between a donor and recipient, a severe acute hemolytic reaction with hemolysis RBC destruction , kidney failure and shock is likely to occur, and death is a possibility. Antibodies can be highly active and can attack RBCs and bind components of the complement system to cause massive hemolysis of the transfused blood.
Patients should ideally receive their own blood or type-specific blood products to minimize the chance of a transfusion reaction. It is also possible to use the patient's own blood for transfusion. This is called autologous blood transfusion , which is always compatible with the patient. The procedure of washing a patient's own red blood cells goes as follows: The patient's lost blood is collected and washed with a saline solution.
The washing procedure yields concentrated washed red blood cells. The last step is reinfusing the packed red blood cells into the patient. There are multiple ways to wash red blood cells. The two main ways are centrifugation and filtration methods.
This procedure can be performed with microfiltration devices like the Hemoclear filter. Risks can be further reduced by cross-matching blood, but this may be skipped when blood is required for an emergency. Cross-matching involves mixing a sample of the recipient's serum with a sample of the donor's red blood cells and checking if the mixture agglutinates , or forms clumps.
If agglutination is not obvious by direct vision, blood bank technicians usually check for agglutination with a microscope. If agglutination occurs, that particular donor's blood cannot be transfused to that particular recipient. In a blood bank it is vital that all blood specimens are correctly identified, so labelling has been standardized using a barcode system known as ISBT The blood group may be included on identification tags or on tattoos worn by military personnel, in case they should need an emergency blood transfusion.
Rare blood types can cause supply problems for blood banks and hospitals. For example, Duffy -negative blood occurs much more frequently in people of African origin,  and the rarity of this blood type in the rest of the population can result in a shortage of Duffy-negative blood for these patients.
Similarly, for RhD negative people there is a risk associated with travelling to parts of the world where supplies of RhD negative blood are rare, particularly East Asia , where blood services may endeavor to encourage Westerners to donate blood.
A pregnant woman may carry a fetus with a blood type which is different from her own. This can happen if some of the fetus' blood cells pass into the mother's blood circulation e. Sometimes this is lethal for the fetus; in these cases it is called hydrops fetalis. To provide maximum benefit from each blood donation and to extend shelf-life, blood banks fractionate some whole blood into several products.
The most common of these products are packed RBCs, plasma , platelets , cryoprecipitate , and fresh frozen plasma FFP. FFP is quick-frozen to retain the labile clotting factors V and VIII , which are usually administered to patients who have a potentially fatal clotting problem caused by a condition such as advanced liver disease, overdose of anticoagulant , or disseminated intravascular coagulation DIC. Units of packed red cells are made by removing as much of the plasma as possible from whole blood units.
Clotting factors synthesized by modern recombinant methods are now in routine clinical use for hemophilia , as the risks of infection transmission that occur with pooled blood products are avoided. Table note 1.
Assumes absence of atypical antibodies that would cause an incompatibility between donor and recipient blood, as is usual for blood selected by cross matching. An Rh D-negative patient who does not have any anti-D antibodies never being previously sensitized to D-positive RBCs can receive a transfusion of D-positive blood once, but this would cause sensitization to the D antigen, and a female patient would become at risk for hemolytic disease of the newborn.
If a D-negative patient has developed anti-D antibodies, a subsequent exposure to D-positive blood would lead to a potentially dangerous transfusion reaction.
Rh D-positive blood should never be given to D-negative women of child-bearing age or to patients with D antibodies, so blood banks must conserve Rh-negative blood for these patients. In extreme circumstances, such as for a major bleed when stocks of D-negative blood units are very low at the blood bank, D-positive blood might be given to D-negative females above child-bearing age or to Rh-negative males, providing that they did not have anti-D antibodies, to conserve D-negative blood stock in the blood bank.
The converse is not true; Rh D-positive patients do not react to D negative blood. This same matching is done for other antigens of the Rh system as C, c, E and e and for other blood group systems with a known risk for immunization such as the Kell system in particular for females of child-bearing age or patients with known need for many transfusions. Blood plasma compatibility is the inverse of red blood cell compatibility.
Type O carries both antibodies, so individuals of blood group O can receive plasma from any blood group, but type O plasma can be used only by type O recipients. Assumes absence of strong atypical antibodies in donor plasma. Rh D antibodies are uncommon, so generally neither D negative nor D positive blood contain anti-D antibodies. If a potential donor is found to have anti-D antibodies or any strong atypical blood group antibody by antibody screening in the blood bank, they would not be accepted as a donor or in some blood banks the blood would be drawn but the product would need to be appropriately labeled ; therefore, donor blood plasma issued by a blood bank can be selected to be free of D antibodies and free of other atypical antibodies, and such donor plasma issued from a blood bank would be suitable for a recipient who may be D positive or D negative, as long as blood plasma and the recipient are ABO compatible.
In transfusions of packed red blood cells, individuals with type O Rh D negative blood are often called universal donors. Those with type AB Rh D positive blood are called universal recipients. However, these terms are only generally true with respect to possible reactions of the recipient's anti-A and anti-B antibodies to transfused red blood cells, and also possible sensitization to Rh D antigens. One exception is individuals with hh antigen system also known as the Bombay phenotype who can only receive blood safely from other hh donors, because they form antibodies against the H antigen present on all red blood cells.
Blood donors with exceptionally strong anti-A, anti-B or any atypical blood group antibody may be excluded from blood donation. In general, while the plasma fraction of a blood transfusion may carry donor antibodies not found in the recipient, a significant reaction is unlikely because of dilution. Additionally, red blood cell surface antigens other than A, B and Rh D, might cause adverse reactions and sensitization, if they can bind to the corresponding antibodies to generate an immune response.
Transfusions are further complicated because platelets and white blood cells WBCs have their own systems of surface antigens, and sensitization to platelet or WBC antigens can occur as a result of transfusion.
For transfusions of plasma , this situation is reversed. Type O plasma, containing both anti-A and anti-B antibodies, can only be given to O recipients. The antibodies will attack the antigens on any other blood type. Typically, blood type tests are performed through addition of a blood sample to a solution containing antibodies corresponding to each antigen. The presence of an antigen on the surface of the blood cells is indicated by agglutination.
In these tests, rather than agglutination, a positive result is indicated by decolorization as red blood cells which bind to the nanoparticles are pulled toward a magnet and removed from solution. In addition to the current practice of serologic testing of blood types, the progress in molecular diagnostics allows the increasing use of blood group genotyping.
In contrast to serologic tests reporting a direct blood type phenotype, genotyping allows the prediction of a phenotype based on the knowledge of the molecular basis of the currently known antigens. This allows a more detailed determination of the blood type and therefore a better match for transfusion, which can be crucial in particular for patients with needs for many transfusions to prevent allo-immunization. In , he found that blood sera from different persons would clump together agglutinate when mixed in test tubes, and not only that, some human blood also agglutinated with animal blood.
The serum of healthy human beings not only agglutinates animal red cells, but also often those of human origin, from other individuals. It remains to be seen whether this appearance is related to inborn differences between individuals or it is the result of some damage of bacterial kind.
This was the first evidence that blood variation exists in humans. The next year, in , he made a definitive observation that blood serum of an individual would agglutinate with only those of certain individuals. Based on this he classified human bloods into three groups, namely group A, group B, and group C. He defined that group A blood agglutinates with group B, but never with its own type. Similarly, group B blood agglutinates with group A.
Blood transfusions: What to know
Blood groups are determined by the presence or absence of certain antigens proteins and sugars on the red blood cell membrane. Normally dogs do not have antibodies against any of the antigens present on their own red blood cells or against other canine blood group antigens unless they have been previously exposed to them by transfusion. However, antibodies against antigens found in other dogs can occasionally be present without any prior exposure. Dogs have more than 12 blood groups, and their red blood cells may contain any combination of these since each blood group is inherited independently. Typing of blood donors and recipients is done before transfusion.
Blood groups systems
Blood transfusions work to replace blood that is lost due to injury or surgery. People can also get blood transfusions to treat certain medical conditions. This article will outline what a blood transfusion is, when they are necessary, and what to expect during the procedure. A blood transfusion is a procedure that restores blood to the body. A healthcare professional will pass blood through a rubber tube into a vein using a needle or thin tube.
Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood products into one's circulation intravenously. Early transfusions used whole blood , but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such as red blood cells , white blood cells , plasma , clotting factors , and platelets. Red blood cells RBC contain hemoglobin , and supply the cells of the body with oxygen.
The amount and part of the blood transfused depends on what the patient needs. A CBC measures the levels of components within the blood such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Tests of clotting coagulation may also be done if abnormal bleeding is a problem. If a transfusion is needed, it must be prescribed by a health care provider.
Written and peer-reviewed by physicians—but use at your own risk.
Getting a Blood Transfusion
The ABO blood group is the most important of all the blood group systems. These naturally occurring antibodies are mainly IgM immunoglobulins. They attack and rapidly destroy red cells carrying the corresponding antigen.
NCBI Bookshelf. Dean L. The immune system never rests—its cells constantly patrol the circulation. Without the immune system, the body would be overwhelmed with infections. With it, blood transfusions must be performed with great care.
A blood type also known as a blood group is a classification of blood , based on the presence and absence of antibodies and inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells RBCs. These antigens may be proteins , carbohydrates , glycoproteins , or glycolipids , depending on the blood group system. Some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues. Several of these red blood cell surface antigens can stem from one allele or an alternative version of a gene and collectively form a blood group system. Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents. A complete blood type would describe each of the 38 blood groups, and an individual's blood type is one of many possible combinations of blood-group antigens.
Люди на подиуме не отрываясь смотрели на экран. Агент Смит начал доклад. - По вашему приказу, директор, - говорил он, - мы провели в Севилье два дня, выслеживая мистера Энсея Танкадо. - Расскажите, как он погиб, - нетерпеливо сказал Фонтейн. Смит сообщил: - Мы вели наблюдение из мини-автобуса с расстояния метров в пятьдесят. Вначале все шло гладко.
У нее была высокая стройная фигура с пышной грудью и по-юношески плоским животом. Дэвид шутил, что она может стать первой моделью для рекламы купальников, имеющей докторскую степень по прикладной математике и теории чисел. Через несколько месяцев оба начали подозревать, что обрели нечто такое, что может продлиться всю жизнь. Они были вместе уже два года, когда Дэвид вдруг сделал ей предложение. Это случилось во время поездки на уик-энд в Смоки-Маунтинс.
Вдруг это вирус. Ты раньше говорил что-то про вирус. - Черт возьми, Мидж! - взорвался Джабба. - Я сказал, что вируса в шифровалке .
Но, ожив, монитор вновь показал то же. Чатрукьяну вдруг стало холодно. У сотрудников лаборатории систем безопасности была единственная обязанность - поддерживать ТРАНСТЕКСТ в чистоте, следить, чтобы в него не проникли вирусы.
Бринкерхофф сидел как на иголках. - Ты уверена, что мы должны его беспокоить. - Я не собираюсь его беспокоить, - сказала Мидж, протягивая ему трубку. - Это сделаешь .
А вы тем временем погибаете. - Он посмотрел на экран.
Если будет еще интереснее, чем этой ночью, я не смогу встать. Дэвид привлек ее к себе, не ощущая тяжести. Вчера он чуть не умер, а сегодня жив, здоров и полон сил.
Шестнадцать часов. Но это не все, сэр. Я запустил антивирус, и он показывает нечто очень странное. - Неужели? - Стратмор по-прежнему оставался невозмутим. - Что показалось тебе странным.
- Так к чему ты клонишь. - Я думаю, что Стратмор сегодня воспользовался этим переключателем… для работы над файлом, который отвергла программа Сквозь строй. - Ну и. Для того и предназначен этот переключатель, верно.
Наконец Беккер дошел до конца темного коридора и толкнул чуть приоткрытую дверь слева. Комната была пуста, если не считать старой изможденной женщины на койке, пытавшейся подсунуть под себя судно.