element of natural ventilation and air movement in building pdf

Element Of Natural Ventilation And Air Movement In Building Pdf

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The control of air flow is important for several reasons: to control moisture damage, reduce energy losses, and to ensure occupant comfort and health. Airflow across the building enclosure is driven by wind pressures, stack effect, and mechanical air handling equipment like fans and furnaces. A continuous, strong, stiff, durable and air impermeable air barrier system is required between the exterior and conditioned space to control airflow driven by these forces. It has long been recognised that the control of air flow is a crucial and intrinsic part of heat and moisture control in modern building enclosures [ Wilson , Garden ].

natural ventilation

Ventilation is the intentional introduction of outdoor air into a space. Ventilation is mainly used to control indoor air quality by diluting and displacing indoor pollutants; it can also be used to control indoor temperature, humidity, and air motion to benefit thermal comfort , satisfaction with other aspects of indoor environment, or other objectives. The intentional introduction of outdoor air is usually categorized as either mechanical ventilation, natural ventilation , [2] or mixed-mode ventilation hybrid ventilation. The design of buildings that promote occupant health and well being requires clear understanding of the ways that ventilation airflow interacts with, dilutes, displaces or introduces pollutants within the occupied space. Although ventilation is an integral component to maintaining good indoor air quality, it may not be satisfactory alone. In kitchen ventilation systems, or for laboratory fume hoods , the design of effective effluent capture can be more important than the bulk amount of ventilation in a space. More generally, the way that an air distribution system causes ventilation to flow into and out of a space impacts the ability for a particular ventilation rate to remove internally generated pollutants.

Passive ventilation

Passive ventilation is the process of supplying air to and removing air from an indoor space without using mechanical systems. It refers to the flow of external air to an indoor space as a result of pressure differences arising from natural forces. There are two types of natural ventilation occurring in buildings: wind driven ventilation and buoyancy-driven ventilation. Wind driven ventilation arises from the different pressures created by wind around a building or structure, and openings being formed on the perimeter which then permit flow through the building. Buoyancy-driven ventilation occurs as a result of the directional buoyancy force that results from temperature differences between the interior and exterior. The static pressure of air is the pressure in a free-flowing air stream and is depicted by isobars in weather maps. Differences in static pressure arise from global and microclimate thermal phenomena and create the air flow we call wind.

Natural ventilation uses the natural forces of wind and buoyancy to introduce fresh air and distribute it effectively in buildings for the benefit of the occupants. Fresh air is required to achieve a healthy, fresh, and comfortable indoor environment for people to work and live in. Natural ventilation can ensure or support the supply of adequate breathing air, adequate ventilation of contaminants, adequate thermal conditioning and moisture dissipation, and contribute to well-being through a connection to the dynamics of nature. For natural ventilation to be effective, there has to be a close relationship between the architecture and the air circulation system. This includes the relationship between the built form, the site environment in a particular location, and the layout within the building. The Natural History Museum in London, designed by Alfred Waterhouse in the Victorian age, is an excellent example of design for natural ventilation.

Natural Ventilation in Built Environment

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Продвигаясь по служебной лестнице, Тревор Стратмор прославился умением сжато и одновременно глубоко анализировать сложнейшие ситуации. Он обладал почти сверхъестественной способностью преодолевать моральные затруднения, с которыми нередко бывают связаны сложные решения агентства, и действовать без угрызений совести в интересах всеобщего блага. Ни у кого не вызывало сомнений, что Стратмор любит свою страну. Он был известен среди сотрудников, он пользовался репутацией патриота и идеалиста… честного человека в мире, сотканном из лжи.

 Вы знаете, кто. - Какая разница? - огрызнулся светловолосый. - Позвольте вам сразу кое-что объяснить, - сказал директор.

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    of the prevailing natural forces such as wind, outdoor. temperature, sunlight, incorporating building elements. such as towers, atria, and thermal.

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