Dissociation And Hallucinations In Dyads Engaged Through Interpersonal Gazing Pdf
File Name: dissociation and hallucinations in dyads engaged through interpersonal gazing .zip
We also considered whether new studies had incorporated certain recommendations made in this anthology. This literature was diverse and often lacked methodological consistency and adherence to the prior suggestions.
- Weird things start to happen when you stare into someone’s eyes for 10 minutes
- Publications by authors named "Giovanni B Caputo"
- Archetypal-imaging and mirror-gazing.
- Strange‐face Illusions During Interpersonal‐Gazing and Personality Differences of Spirituality
Figure 1. Dissociative disorders are characterized by an individual becoming split off, or dissociated, from her core sense of self.
Weird things start to happen when you stare into someone’s eyes for 10 minutes
Mirrors have been studied by cognitive psychology in order to understand self-recognition, self-identity, and self-consciousness. Moreover, the relevance of mirrors in spirituality, magic and arts may also suggest that mirrors can be symbols of unconscious contents. Carl G. Jung investigated mirrors in relation to the unconscious, particularly in Psychology and Alchemy.
However, the relationship between the conscious behavior in front of a mirror and the unconscious meaning of mirrors has not been clarified. Healthy observers usually describe huge distortions of their own faces, monstrous beings, prototypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and faces of animals. In the psychiatric population, some schizophrenics show a dramatic increase of strange-face illusions.
They can also describe the perception of multiple-others that fill the mirror surface surrounding their strange-face. Schizophrenics are usually convinced that strange-face illusions are truly real and identify themselves with strange-face illusions, diversely from healthy individuals who never identify with them.
On the contrary, most patients with major depression do not perceive strange-face illusions, or they perceive very faint changes of their immobile faces in the mirror, like death statues. Future researches have been proposed. Mirrors have been studied in cognitive psychology in relationship to self-recognition, self-identity and self-consciousness.
The attainment of a developmental stage of basic self-recognition is commonly gauged through reactions to a mirror [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. This process most probably requires the binding of visual information i. Moreover, if the mirror is flat and without visible imperfections, the reflected image is completely coherent in space with respect to the original visual stimulus. In turn, unconscious mimicry can presumably produce empathic resonance [ 5 ] and emotional contagion within the subject.
The subject becomes a spectator when it recognizes its mirrored image: seeing itself in the mirror is seeing itself as others see it. The decisive and unsettling impact of mirror self-recognition is the realization that the subject exists in an intersubjective space.
This finding strongly distinguishes mirror self-recognition from self-identification in photos. The uncanny character of the mirrored image is due to intermingling of self and other representations within the subject—a process that is completely absent when identifying photos. In this sense I am torn from myself, and the image in the mirror prepares me for another still more serious alienation, which will be the alienation by others.
Developmental, neurophysiological and neuropsychological studies showed that mirrored reflections are not equivalent to pictures and live videos [ 9 ]. Children show signs of self-recognition in photos much sooner than they are able to pass the mark test with mirrors [ 10 ]. On the other hand, children pass mirror versions of the mark task before the versions involving live videos [ 11 ].
The neural signatures for self-recognition differ depending upon whether using a mirror or a photo [ 12 ]. Some neuropsychological patients may not recognize themselves in mirrors mirrored-self misidentification; [ 13 ] , while retaining their capacity to recognize themselves in photos [ 14 ]. These produce an alteration in the regulation of the self-boundaries, either in the direction of the under-relatedness to personally significant aspects of the self as mirrored-self misidentification or in the direction of the over-relatedness to selected aspects of the world that the patient inappropriately over-incorporates into the self.
In connection to phenomenological experiences of alienation or dissociation by the subject in front of its reflected image [ 6 , 7 , 8 ], a relationship to out-of-body experiences [ 16 ] can be discussed. Experiments with virtual reality showed that a multi-sensory bodily self-representation is bound through the integration of visual virtual reality and touch information in experiments of spatial self-location [ 17 , 18 , 19 ].
During mirror self-recognition, a similar binding process is probably present for multi-sensory integration of visual i. Healthy observers sometimes see huge distortions of their own faces, but they often see monstrous beings, prototypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and faces of animals [ 20 , 21 ]. The mirror stand used in the experiment of mirror-gazing. The room should be without external light. A uniform illumination of the face about 0. Dissociative experiences of strange-face illusions in healthy individuals typically dissipated after 15 min [ 23 ].
Consistent with these ideas of a dissociative process, observers wearing a full-face theatrical mask during mirror-gazing e.
In healthy individuals, strange-face illusions during mirror gazing usually involve the perception of one strange-face at a time. The duration of the illusion has been reported to be roughly seven seconds [ 21 ]. However, there are some healthy observers who describe intense flux or streaming experiences of continuously changing faces of unknown persons; the stream of new faces can last for a relatively long time. Alternatively, some schizophrenic patients describe the perception of multiple-others that fill the mirror surface surrounding the strange face [ 26 ].
Many patients were convinced that strange-face illusions were truly real and identify themselves with strange-face illusions, differently from healthy individuals who never identify with them [ 26 ]. This deficit in schizophrenia can be caused by pathological ego dysfunction [ 27 ].
Similar or even stronger strange-face illusions can be produced through an interpersonal setting Figure 2 in which a pair of individuals are facing and gazing at each other in the eyes [ 28 ].
In such an inter-subjective setting, unconscious synchronization of responses is apparent in some dyads. On the basis of this finding, it is possible to hypothesize that strange-face illusions during mirror-gazing enact an interpersonal subject-other interaction in which the subject is facing its dissociative other located beyond or behind the mirror. A possible explanation of stronger strange-face illusions in some dyads with respect to mirror-gazing can be due to an increase of unconscious mimicry and emotional contagion within the dyad.
Therefore, the symmetry of the interpersonal setting can lead to mirroring the bodily, affective, and psychological contents of strange-face illusions within these dyads. The interpersonal symmetric setting used for inter-subjective strange-face illusions [ 28 ]. Emotional responses to strange-face illusions are usually relatively intense in healthy individuals, and can be dramatic in some schizophrenic patients.
Most frequent emotions are: surprise, interest and astonishment; other emotions include negative emotions such as moderate fear, anguish and fright, while positive emotions, such as hilarity and joyfulness, are rare. As discussed above, self-recognition in mirrors is based on multiple cognitive processes. Therefore, strange-faces in the mirror are probably complex illusions involving different processes, from visual perception to motor facial mimicry, from self-other boundary to affective empathy, from unconscious contagion to conscious misidentification.
Consequently, different mechanisms hypothesized as generative to strange-face illusions may be proposed. A first hypothesis is that strange-face illusions are perceptual and involve the Troxler effect [ 29 ]. This effect can explain merging of facial features into a uniform silouette of the facial contour; however, perception of entirely new faces remains unexplained.
A second hypothesis is that prolonged adaptation to mirrored face disrupts multi-sensory binding between visual and bodily representations. This explanation can account for the frequent experiences of dissociation [ 23 , 24 ] and experiences that are similar to out-of-body perceptions of another person who is located beyond the mirror [ 21 ]. A fourth hypothesis is that gazing at a low illumination can alter the self-other boundary [ 15 ] and by consequence can bring to mirrored-self misidentification and dissociation.
A fifth hypothesis, which we prefer, can be based on emotions and empathy through facial mimicry and contagion [ 4 , 5 ], which can operate within the subject, resonating with its own face reflected in the mirror.
In the inter-subjective setting, some dyads can show unconscious synchronization of illusions as a consequence of synchronized facial mimicry between two individuals who are staring at each other in the eyes.
Hence, the peculiar ability of empathy is that inanimate targets can become animated and appear alive. The targets that are animated by empathy appear as immediate Dasein and real, since the ego has become external and self-objective [ 31 ].
Jung proposed an empathic personality trait which may be complemented by an opposite personality trait of abstraction in order to explain differences among individuals. Jung [ 32 ], see Appendix 1 posited that the empathic personality trait is correlated to extroversion, while abstraction is correlated to introversion. In fact, according to Jung, depression is characterized by profound introjections of libido from the external world [ 35 ]. This may possibly reflect affective inhibition and blunting on the dissociative process which may require at least the potential for strong affective activation; a potential clearly dampened by depression [ 36 ].
Jung [ 32 ], see Definitions: Self conceived the self as a totality of conscious and unconscious contents, together with a transcendent function that has the purpose to gain progressive awareness of unconscious contents. Integration starts through awareness of strange-faces, a process that is favoured by the fact that the mirror is also a physical object.
Also, schizophrenic patients can take advantage of this awareness, since they can ground their often dramatic hallucinations elicited by mirror-gazing upon objectivity of the physical mirror. In this way, unconscious projections of dissociated contents can be integrated into the consciousness of the self. The strange-face that they perceived the first time in the mirror was by a person who was unknown or opposite to their conscious character and bodily appearance or sexual genre e.
The observers described their progressive comprehension of the identity of the strange-face during the sessions. This process of integration by awareness of the unknown aspect of the self can be similar to imaginatio , according to Jungian terminology [ 39 ].
Strange-face illusions could be classified according to archetypes described in analytical psychology [ 40 ]. According to Jung, an archetype is structured into opposites. The process of individuation of the self presupposes the integration of opposites. According to Jung, any time an unconscious archetypal content is constellated and emerges, it is characterized by numinosity, that is its fascinating power of attraction of the ego toward the unconscious, in a form of deep interest or even possession [ 41 ].
According to Jung, synchronistic events arise whenever archetypes are constellated and, on the other side, synchronistic phenomena can be elicited by putting an individual into an unconscious state, as hypnosis or trance [ 41 ]. Archetypes of collective unconscious make synchronicity of individuals around numinous symbols.
According to Jung, these events characterize telepathy between individuals and synchronistic events between the psychic and the physic. For example, numbers are archetypes of the order both of the physical world and of the self. Archetypal numbers not only express order of the world, but in addition the unconscious uses numbers as a factor that creates order [ 42 ]. This can produce a crossed projection of unconscious contents that are merged between the two individuals, with unconscious contents of one individual becoming also in part the unconscious contents of the other, on the basis of collective archetypes.
According to Jung, this syzygy can create a crossed conjunction within the dyad [ 39 ], chapter 5. In addition to previous cognitive and analytical accounts of strange-faces, other aspects of these illusions need to be discussed in a wider cultural and anthropological context. In fact, unsettling experiences with mirrors is largely documented in arts and religion [ 44 , 45 ], magic, alchemy and spirituality [ 46 ]. In the following sections a review is made about these aspects of mirror usage, in order to gain a better understanding of strange-face illusions from these viewpoints.
The magic power of mirrors dates back probably from the beginning of their invention. The art of using mirrors in divination and prediction of individual destiny named catoptromantia is found in the Dionysian testimonies [ 47 ]. The legend, chanted in the poem Dionysiaca by Nonnus of Panopolis, describes the killing of Dionysus as a child by his brothers the Titans, just when Dionysus gazes into the fascinating mirror Figure 66b in [ 47 ] from Birth of Dionysus , Archaeological Museum of Bologna, Italy.
A very large number of Greek and Roman vases show Bacchantes or Satyrs dancing in trance while gazing into a portable mirror. The great Alexander mosaic named also Battle of Isso at the Archaeological Museum of Napoli, Italy, shows an important detail in the lower centre part of the mosaic: a dying warrior gazes into the back side of his reflecting shield to see his ghost.
The most revealing information about the secret Dionysian mysteries is shown hermetically in the cycles of frescoes from the Villa of Mysteries in Pompei, Italy. An old Silenus offers some wine in a large reflecting silver bowl to a young man. The Silenus averts his gaze from the bowl, whereas the young man gazes into the mirror-reflecting bowl and has an astonished expression. Behind the young man there is another young man with identical facial features and clothes, but another expression of awareness—probably the same man that is doubled and yet has been initiated to the Mysteries.
His double holds up a frightening mask which the drinking young man probably sees reflected in the bowl.
Publications by authors named "Giovanni B Caputo"
It can include feeling like the world is unreal, memory loss, and odd perceptual experiences, such as seeing the world in black and white. Giovanni Caputo recruited 20 young adults 15 women to form pairs. Each pair sat in chairs opposite each other, one metre apart, in a large, dimly lit room. Specifically, the lighting level was 0. A control group of a further 20 participants also sat in a dimly lit room in pairs, but their chairs faced the wall and they stared at the wall.
Sforza 35, Milano, Italy. Toggle navigation. Login Categories Journals. Publications by authors named "Giovanni B Caputo". Split-mirror gazing increases dissociative states and illusions of self-identity. Authors: Giovanni B Caputo. J Trauma Dissociation Jan
Archetypal-imaging and mirror-gazing.
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Experimentally induced strange-face illusions can be perceived when two individuals look at each other in the eyes under low illumination for about 10 minutes. Dissociative phenomena seem to be involved, whereas the effects of non-pathological dissociation on strange-face illusions have not yet been directly investigated. Results of correlation and factor analyses suggest that strange-face illusions can involve, respectively: i strange-face illusions correlated to derealization; ii strange-face illusions correlated to depersonalization; and iii strange-face illusions of identity, which are supposedly correlated to identity dissociation. The findings support the separati Continue Reading.
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Strange‐face Illusions During Interpersonal‐Gazing and Personality Differences of Spirituality
It has been widely shown that dissociative features might play a fundamental role in producing body image distortions in patients affected by eating disorders. Here, we hypothesize that the Mirror Gazing Test MGT , a task consisting in mirror exposure in a condition of sensory deprivation, would elicit dissociative symptoms in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa AN. Dissociative identity compartmentalization of two or more identities and depersonalization detachment of bodily-self were much higher in patients with AN than in HC.
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