Principles And Techniques Of Effective Motivation Pdf
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Case Study On Motivation Pdf Although, there is general agreement among psychologists that man experiences a variety of needs, there is considerable disagreement as to what these needs are and their relative importance Van Rooyen, J.
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Intrinsic Motivation: How to Pick Up Healthy Motivation Techniques
NCBI Bookshelf. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Motivational interviewing is a way of being with a client, not just a set of techniques for doing counseling. Miller and Rollnick, Motivational interviewing is a technique in which you become a helper in the change process and express acceptance of your client. It is a way to interact with substance-using clients, not merely as an adjunct to other therapeutic approaches, and a style of counseling that can help resolve the ambivalence that prevents clients from realizing personal goals.
Motivational interviewing builds on Carl Rogers' optimistic and humanistic theories about people's capabilities for exercising free choice and changing through a process of self-actualization. The therapeutic relationship for both Rogerian and motivational interviewers is a democratic partnership.
Your role in motivational interviewing is directive, with a goal of eliciting self-motivational statements and behavioral change from the client in addition to creating client discrepancy to enhance motivation for positive change Davidson, ; Miller and Rollnick, Essentially, motivational interviewing activates the capability for beneficial change that everyone possesses Rollnick and Miller, Although some people can continue change on their own, others require more formal treatment and support over the long journey of recovery.
Even for clients with low readiness, motivational interviewing serves as a vital prelude to later therapeutic work. Motivational interviewing is a counseling style based on the following assumptions: Ambivalence about substance use and change is normal and constitutes an important motivational obstacle in recovery.
Ambivalence can be resolved by working with your client's intrinsic motivations and values. The alliance between you and your client is a collaborative partnership to which you each bring important expertise. An empathic, supportive, yet directive, counseling style provides conditions under which change can occur. Direct argument and aggressive confrontation may tend to increase client defensiveness and reduce the likelihood of behavioral change. This chapter briefly discusses ambivalence and its role in client motivation.
Five basic principles of motivational interviewing are then presented to address ambivalence and to facilitate the change process. Opening strategies to use with clients in the early stages of treatment are offered as well.
The chapter concludes with a summary of a review by Noonan and Moyers that studied the effectiveness of motivational interviewing. Individuals with substance abuse disorders are usually aware of the dangers of their substance-using behavior but continue to use substances anyway. They may want to stop using substances, but at the same time they do not want to. They enter treatment programs but claim their problems are not all that serious.
These disparate feelings can be characterized as ambivalence, and they are natural, regardless of the client's state of readiness. It is important to understand and accept your client's ambivalence because ambivalence is often the central problem--and lack of motivation can be a manifestation of this ambivalence Miller and Rollnick, If you interpret ambivalence as denial or resistance, friction between you and your client tends to occur.
The motivational interviewing style facilitates exploration of stage-specific motivational conflicts that can potentially hinder further progress.
However, each dilemma also offers an opportunity to use the motivational style to help your client explore and resolve opposing attitudes. Examples of how these conflicts might be expressed at different stages of change are provided in Figure The strategies of motivational interviewing are more persuasive than coercive, more supportive than argumentative.
The motivational interviewer must proceed with a strong sense of purpose, clear strategies and skills for pursuing that purpose, and a sense of timing to intervene in particular ways at incisive moments Miller and Rollnick, , pp.
The clinician practices motivational interviewing with five general principles in mind: Express empathy through reflective listening.
Develop discrepancy between clients' goals or values and their current behavior. Avoid argument and direct confrontation. Adjust to client resistance rather than opposing it directly. Support self-efficacy and optimism. Empathy "is a specifiable and learnable skill for understanding another's meaning through the use of reflective listening. It requires sharp attention to each new client statement, and the continual generation of hypotheses as to the underlying meaning" Miller and Rollnick, , p.
An empathic style Communicates respect for and acceptance of clients and their feelings Encourages a nonjudgmental, collaborative relationship Allows you to be a supportive and knowledgeable consultant Sincerely compliments rather than denigrates Listens rather than tells Gently persuades, with the understanding that the decision to change is the client's Provides support throughout the recovery process.
Empathic motivational interviewing establishes a safe and open environment that is conducive to examining issues and eliciting personal reasons and methods for change. A fundamental component of motivational interviewing is understanding each client's unique perspective, feelings, and values.
Your attitude should be one of acceptance, but not necessarily approval or agreement, recognizing that ambivalence about change is to be expected. Motivational interviewing is most successful when a trusting relationship is established between you and your client. Reprinted with permission. Acceptance facilitates change. Skillful reflective listening is fundamental to expressing empathy.
Ambivalence is normal. Although empathy is the foundation of a motivational counseling style, it "should not be confused with the meaning of empathy as identification with the client or the sharing of common past experiences. In fact, a recent personal history of the same problem area The key component to expressing empathy is reflective listening. For many traditional Native American groups, expressing empathy begins with the introduction.
Native Americans generally expect the clinician to be aware of and practice the culturally accepted norms for introducing oneself and showing respect. For example, when first meeting a Navajo, the person often is expected to say his name, clan relationship or ethnic origin, and place of origin.
Physical contact is kept to a minimum, except for a brief handshake, which may be no more than a soft touch of the palms. If you are not listening reflectively but are instead imposing direction and judgment, you are creating barriers that impair the therapeutic relationship Miller and Rollnick, The client will most likely react by stopping, diverting, or changing direction. Twelve examples of such nonempathic responses have been identified Gordon, : Ordering or directing.
Direction is given with a voice of authority. The speaker may be in a position of power e. Warning or threatening.
These messages are similar to ordering but they carry an overt or covert threat of impending negative consequences if the advice or direction is not followed. The threat may be one the clinician will carry out or simply a prediction of a negative outcome if the client doesn't comply--for example, " If you don't listen to me, you'll be sorry.
The message recommends a course of action based on the clinician's knowledge and personal experience. These recommendations often begin with phrases such as, "What I would do is The underlying assumption of these messages is that the client has not reasoned through the problem adequately and needs help to do so.
Moralizing, preaching, or telling clients their duty. These statements contain such words as "should" or "ought" to convey moral instructions. Judging, criticizing, disagreeing, or blaming. These messages imply that something is wrong with the client or with what the client has said. Even simple disagreement may be interpreted as critical.
Agreeing, approving, or praising. Surprisingly, praise or approval also can be an obstacle if the message sanctions or implies agreement with whatever the client has said.
Unsolicited approval can interrupt the communication process and can imply an uneven relationship between the speaker and the listener. Reflective listening does not require agreement. Shaming, ridiculing, labeling, or name-calling. These messages express overt disapproval and intent to correct a specific behavior or attitude. Interpreting or analyzing. Clinicians are frequently and easily tempted to impose their own interpretations on a client's statement and to find some hidden, analytical meaning.
Interpretive statements might imply that the clinician knows what the client's real problem is. Reassuring, sympathizing, or consoling. Clinicians often want to make the client feel better by offering consolation. Such reassurance can interrupt the flow of communication and interfere with careful listening. Questioning or probing.
Clinicians often mistake questioning for good listening. Although the clinician may ask questions to learn more about the client, the underlying message is that the clinician might find the right answer to all the client's problems if enough questions are asked.
In fact, intensive questioning can interfere with the spontaneous flow of communication and divert it in directions of interest to the clinician rather than the client. Withdrawing, distracting, humoring, or changing the subject. Although humor may represent an attempt to take the client's mind off emotional subjects or threatening problems, it also can be a distraction that diverts communication and implies that the client's statements are unimportant.
Ethnic and cultural differences must be considered when expressing empathy because they influence how both you and your client interpret verbal and nonverbal communications. One way I empathize with African-American clients is, first and foremost, to be a genuine person not just a counselor or clinician. The client may begin the relationship asking questions about you the person, not the professional, in an attempt to locate you in the world.
It's as if the client's internal dialog says, "As you try to understand me, by what pathways, perspectives, life experiences, and values are you coming to that understanding of me? Where are you from? What part of town do you live in? Who are your folks? Are you married? Motivation for change is enhanced when clients perceive discrepancies between their current situation and their hopes for the future. Your task is to help focus your client's attention on how current behavior differs from ideal or desired behavior.
NCBI Bookshelf. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Motivational interviewing is a way of being with a client, not just a set of techniques for doing counseling. Miller and Rollnick, Motivational interviewing is a technique in which you become a helper in the change process and express acceptance of your client.
Engaged workers are more productive and less likely to leave their companies. As a manager or business owner, you have to continually seek new ways to motivate employees and increase workplace productivity. Simple things, such as implementing an employee recognition program and setting small weekly goals, can boost team morale and satisfaction. Here are seven strategies to motivate your team and build a positive company culture. Employee happiness can improve a company's bottom line by leading to greater productivity and increased sales.
Basic principles of motivation exist that are applicable to learning in any situation. The environment can be used to focus the student's attention on what needs to be learned. Teachers who create warm and accepting yet business-like atmospheres will promote persistent effort and favorable attitudes toward learning. This strategy will be successful in children and in adults. Interesting visual aids, such as booklets, posters, or practice equipment, motivate learners by capturing their attention and curiosity. Incentives motivate learning. Incentives include privileges and receiving praise from the instructor.
12 Motivation Techniques for the Workplace
Motivation is a reason for actions , willingness , and goals. Motivation is derived from the word motive, or a need that requires satisfaction. These needs , wants or desires may be acquired through influence of culture, society, lifestyle, or may be generally innate.
An engaged employee will allow you to create an entire culture where employees are motivated to grow and succeed in their roles. Establishing what techniques work best to motivate your employees takes time. In this article, we explore different motivation techniques and how you can apply them in your workplace.
This theory states that goal setting is essentially linked to task performance. It states that specific and challenging goals along with appropriate feedback contribute to higher and better task performance. In simple words, goals indicate and give direction to an employee about what needs to be done and how much efforts are required to be put in. The willingness to work towards attainment of goal is main source of job motivation.
As educators, we should strive to design and develop instruction that is effective, consistent, and meaningful.
7 Techniques for Increasing Motivation
By identifying the underlying building blocks for behavior, strategy, and actions of organizations and their members, companies and researchers may discover innovative techniques to encourage productive and satisfying working environments. Hays and Cole Blease Graham, Jr. Browse the world's largest eBookstore and start reading today on the web, tablet, phone, or ereader. Explain why a manager should study organizational behaviour.
Some of the most important theories of motivation are as follows: 1. From the very beginning, when the human organisations were established, various thinkers have tried to find out the answer to what motivates people to work. Different approaches applied by them have resulted in a number of theories concerning motivation. Drawing chiefly on his clinical experience, he classified all human needs into a hierarchical manner from the lower to the higher order. In essence, he believed that once a given level of need is satisfied, it no longer serves to motivate man. Then, the next higher level of need has to be activated in order to motivate the man. Maslow identified five levels in his need hierarchy as shown in figure
Motivation also has types which determine the path and the goal that can be achieved by that certain type of motivation. This is a social sciences area of the College of Arts and Sciences. Find, read and. They should not, however, be considered representative of the entire scope of the test in either content or difficulty. Wetter and Kate Flory Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina Depression has been characterized as involving altered appetitive motivation and emotional reactivity. Theoretical Review The main objective, with the use of a theoretical review, is to give subsidies for teaches and learners on the knowledge about motivation, welfare and Positive Psychology, es-. In addition, the philosophical underpinnings and orientations of researchers vary, even within the field.
On these bases motivation may be extrinsic or intrinsic. However, the intrinsic motivation is more responsible for motivating students for learning. Educators may.
Intrinsic motivation is the act of doing something without any obvious external rewards. An example of intrinsic motivation would be reading a book because you enjoy reading and have an interest in the story or subject, rather than reading because you have to write a report on it to pass a class. There have been a number of different proposed theories to explain intrinsic motivation and how it works. Some experts believe that all behavior is driven by external reward, such as money, status, or food. In intrinsically motivated behaviors, the reward is the activity itself.
The basic needs model, referred to as content theory of motivation, highlights the specific factors that motivate an individual. Although these factors are found within an individual, things outside the individual can affect him or her as well. In short, all people have needs that they want satisfied. Some are primary needs, such as those for food, sleep, and water—needs that deal with the physical aspects of behavior and are considered unlearned. These needs are biological in nature and relatively stable.
Хотя Энсей Танкадо никогда прежде не видел компьютера, он как будто инстинктивно знал, как с ним обращаться. Компьютер открыл перед ним мир, о существовании которого он даже не подозревал, и вскоре заполнил всю его жизнь. Повзрослев, он начал давать компьютерные уроки, зарабатывать деньги и в конце концов получил стипендию для учебы в Университете Досися.
Сьюзан потребовалось всего мгновение. Стратмор сразу заметил изумление, мелькнувшее в ее глазах, и взволнованно изложил свой план: - Если бы я получил ключ, то смог бы взломать наш экземпляр Цифровой крепости и внести нужные изменения… - Черный ход, - сказала Сьюзан, мгновенно забыв о том, что Стратмор ей лгал. Она все поняла. - Вроде Попрыгунчика. Стратмор кивнул: - Тогда мы смогли бы подменить интернетовский файл, который Танкадо собирается выбросить на рынок, нашей измененной версией.
- Вы не видели девушку. Пожилой уборщик наклонился и выключил мотор. - Eh.
Вы что, морочите нам голову? - взорвался Джабба. Беккер покачал головой: - Отнюдь. Тут написано - Quis custodiet ipsos custodes.
Даже в полуметре от шефа она не видела очертаний его фигуры. Всякий раз, ступая на очередную ступеньку, она носком туфли первым делом старалась нащупать ее край. К ней снова вернулись страхи, связанные с новой попыткой найти ключ Хейла в Третьем узле.
Сдвоенная труба глушителя выбросила очередное густое облако, перед тем как водитель включил вторую передачу. Беккер увеличил скорость. Поравнявшись с задним бампером, он взял немного правее. Ему была видна задняя дверца: как это принято в Севилье, она оставалась открытой - экономичный способ кондиционирования.
Неужели. - Да.