infertility causes and treatment pdf

Infertility Causes And Treatment Pdf

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Infertility

Getting pregnant and carrying a pregnancy to term are actually very complicated processes. Many things can go wrong during these processes to lead to infertility.

For this reason, the following list includes only some of the common causes of infertility in females; it is not meant to be all-inclusive. A woman who is having difficulty getting pregnant or carrying a pregnancy to term should talk with her health care provider about possible treatments. Problems with the menstrual cycle, the process that prepares the female body for pregnancy, can lead to infertility. The menstrual cycle includes several phases, and problems at any one of the stages can lead to difficulty getting pregnant or to infertility.

To learn about a normal menstrual cycle, visit the Menstruation section of this website. To learn about common problems that may occur during the menstrual cycle, visit the What are menstrual irregularities? Structural problems usually involve the presence of abnormal tissue in the fallopian tubes or uterus.

If the fallopian tubes are blocked, eggs are not able to move from the ovaries to the uterus and sperm is not able to reach the egg for fertilization.

Structural problems with the uterus, such as those that may interfere with implantation, can also cause infertility. Untreated gonorrhea and chlamydia in women can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, which might cause scarring that blocks the fallopian tubes. Untreated syphilis increases the risk for a pregnant woman to have a stillbirth.

More information about infections that may affect fertility can be found on the sexually transmitted infections STIs health topic page. Chronic infections in the cervix and surgical treatment of cervical lesions associated with human papillomavirus HPV infection can also reduce the amount or quality of cervical mucus. Problems with this sticky or slippery substance that collects on the cervix and in the vagina can make it difficult for women to get pregnant.

Men and women who weren't vaccinated as preteens can also get the vaccine into their early to mids. Eggs may not mature properly for a variety of reasons, ranging from conditions such as PCOS, to obesity, to a lack of specific proteins needed for the egg to mature.

An immature egg may not be released at the correct time, may not make it down the fallopian tubes, or may not be able to be fertilized. Implantation failure refers to the failure of a fertilized egg to implant in the uterine wall to begin pregnancy. While the specific cause of implantation failure are often unknown, possibilities include: 3 , 4 , 5. Endometriosis occurs when the cells that normally line the uterine cavity, called the endometrium, are found outside the uterus instead.

Research has found a link between infertility and endometriosis. PCOS is one of the most common causes of female infertility. High levels of these hormones interfere with the development of ovarian follicles and release of eggs during ovulation.

As a result, fluid-filled sacs, or cysts, can develop within the ovaries. POI is a condition in which a woman's ovaries stop producing hormones and eggs at a young age. Women with POI ovulate irregularly, if at all, and may have abnormal levels of ovarian and pituitary hormones due to problems with their ovaries. Women with POI often have trouble getting pregnant. However, pregnancy is still possible, though rare.

Uterine fibroids are noncancerous growths that form inside the uterus. Uterine fibroids can cause symptoms in some cases, depending on their size and location. Scientists do not know what causes fibroids to form, but it is believed that there may be a genetic basis. Fibroids are more likely to affect a woman's fertility if they 12 :. A more detailed description of uterine fibroids can be found on the NICHD uterine fibroids topic page. Autoimmune disorders cause the body's immune system to attack normal body tissues it would normally ignore.

Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus, Hashimoto's and other types of thyroiditis, or rheumatoid arthritis, may affect fertility. The reasons for this are not fully understood and differ between diseases, but they are thought to involve inflammation in the uterus and placenta or medications used to treat the diseases.

Both men and women can make antibodies that attack sperm or the reproductive organs. COVID is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Failure to Ovulate. Problems in the Menstrual Cycle.

Structural Problems of the Reproductive System. Some specific structural problems that can cause infertility include: Endometriosis, when tissue that normally lines the inside of the uterus is found in other places, such as blocking the fallopian tubes Uterine fibroids, growths that appear within and around the wall of the uterus, although most women with fibroids do not have problems with fertility and can get pregnant.

However, some women with fibroids may not be able to get pregnant naturally or may have multiple miscarriages or preterm labor.

Polyps, which are noncancerous growths on the inside surface of the uterus. Polyps can interfere with the function of the uterus and make it difficult for a woman to remain pregnant after conception. Surgical removal of the polyps can increase the chances for a woman to get pregnant.

Scarring in the uterus from previous injuries, infections, or surgery. Scarring may increase the risk of miscarriage and may interfere with implantation, thus leading to infertility. An unusually shaped uterus, which can affect implantation and the ability to carry a pregnancy to term. Infections can also cause infertility in men and women. Failure of an Egg to Mature Properly. Implantation Failure.

While the specific cause of implantation failure are often unknown, possibilities include: 3 , 4 , 5 Genetic defects in the embryo Thin endometrium pronounced en-doh-MEE-tree-uhm Embryonic defects Endometriosis Progesterone resistance Scar tissue in the endometrial cavity.

Current theories on how endometriosis causes infertility include the follow: Changes in the structure of the female reproductive organs may occur. Endometriosis can cause pelvic adhesions made of scar tissue to form between nearby structures, such as between the ovary and pelvic wall. This can obstruct and affect the release of the egg after ovulation.

Scarring in the fallopian tube can interrupt block the egg's movement through the fallopian tube. The lining of the abdomen, which is called the peritoneum pronounced pair-ih-tuh-NEE-uhm , may go through changes that affect its function: In women with endometriosis, the amount of fluid inside the peritoneum often increases.

The fluid in the peritoneum contains substances that can negatively affect the functions of the egg, sperm, and fallopian tubes. Chemical changes in the lining of the uterus that occur as a result of endometriosis may affect an embryo's ability to implant properly and make it difficult for a woman to stay pregnant after conception. Uterine Fibroids. Fibroids are more likely to affect a woman's fertility if they 12 : Change the position of the cervix, which can reduce the number of sperm that enter the uterus Change the shape of the uterus, which can interfere with the movement of sperm or implantation Block the fallopian tubes, which prevents sperm from reaching the egg and keeps a fertilized egg from moving to the uterus Interfere with blood flow to the uterus, which can prevent the embryo from implanting A more detailed description of uterine fibroids can be found on the NICHD uterine fibroids topic page.

Autoimmune Disorders. American Family Physician , 75, — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HPV vaccines: Vaccinating your preteen or teen. Polymorphism of genes and implantation failure. International Journal of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, 2 1 , Simon, A. Assessment and treatment of repeated implantation failure RIF.

Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, 29 11 , — Endometriosis and implantation: Myths and facts. Middle East Fertility Society Journal, 17 2 , 79— Giudice, L.

Clinical Practice: Endometriosis. New England Journal of Medicine , 25 , — Endometriosis and infertility: A committee opinion. Fertility and Sterility , 98 3 , — American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

Frequently asked questions: Endometriosis. Infertility FAQs: What is infertility? Polycystic ovary syndrome. Primary ovarian insufficiency: An update. International Journal of Women's Health, 6, — American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fibroids and fertility. Natural treatments for autoimmune infertility concerns.

Questions and Answers about Infertility and its Treatment

Infertility happens when a couple cannot conceive after having regular unprotected sex. It may be that one partner cannot contribute to conception, or that a woman is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term. It is often defined as not conceiving after 12 months of regular sexual intercourse without the use of birth control. In the United States, around 10 percent of women aged 15 to 44 years are estimated to have difficulty conceiving or staying pregnant. Worldwide, 8 to 12 percent of couples experience fertility problems. Between 45 and 50 percent of cases are thought to stem from factors that affect the man. Semen consists of fluid and sperm.


Female infertility is due to ovulatory problem, in male semen quality, and idiopathic cause. Sexually transmitted disease (STD), genetic.


Management of Infertility

The New York State Task Force on Life and the Law was created in to develop public policy on issues arising from medical advances. Task Force members include leaders in the fields of law, medicine, nursing, philosophy, consumer rights, religion and ethics. In , after extensive research and interviews with people involved in fertility treatment, the Task Force found that patients have frequently not been adequately informed before giving their consent to undergo these procedures.

Johns Hopkins Health System hospitals, outpatient locations and home care services are serving patients during inclement weather, with some practices switching to telemedicine visits. Patients should contact their providers to confirm. If you have a MyChart account, please contact your provider through MyChart.

Request an Appointment. Most people will have the strong desire to conceive a child at some point during their lifetime. Understanding what defines normal fertility is crucial to helping a person, or couple, know when it is time to seek help.

Getting pregnant and carrying a pregnancy to term are actually very complicated processes. Many things can go wrong during these processes to lead to infertility. For this reason, the following list includes only some of the common causes of infertility in females; it is not meant to be all-inclusive. A woman who is having difficulty getting pregnant or carrying a pregnancy to term should talk with her health care provider about possible treatments. Problems with the menstrual cycle, the process that prepares the female body for pregnancy, can lead to infertility.

Evaluation of male infertility is important to identify a cause and provide treatment if the etiology is correctable. If a specific treatment is not available or the origin of the male factor infertility is not correctable, other options such as assisted reproductive techniques ART may exist. The pharmacist plays a vital role in identifying medications that contribute to male infertility, counseling the couple on medications used to treat infertility, and promoting healthy lifestyles that minimize infertility factors. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad overview of the etiology, evaluation, and treatment of male infertility. Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve conception despite one year of regular, unprotected intercourse.

If you and your partner are struggling to have a baby, you're not alone. Infertility is defined as not being able to get pregnant despite having frequent, unprotected sex for at least a year for most couples. Infertility may result from an issue with either you or your partner, or a combination of factors that prevent pregnancy.

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