oxidation and antioxidants in organic chemistry and biology pdf

Oxidation And Antioxidants In Organic Chemistry And Biology Pdf

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Beneficial renal effects of some medications, such as chelation therapy depend at least partially on the ability to alleviate oxidative stress.

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Free radicals and other oxidants have gained importance in the field of biology due to their central role in various physiological conditions as well as their implication in a diverse range of diseases. The free radicals, both the reactive oxygen species ROS and reactive nitrogen species RNS , are derived from both endogenous sources mitochondria, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, phagocytic cells etc. Free radicals can adversely affect various important classes of biological molecules such as nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins, thereby altering the normal redox status leading to increased oxidative stress.

Free Radicals

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Shashank Kumar, Abhay K. There has been increasing interest in the research on flavonoids from plant sources because of their versatile health benefits reported in various epidemiological studies. Since flavonoids are directly associated with human dietary ingredients and health, there is need to evaluate structure and function relationship. The bioavailability, metabolism, and biological activity of flavonoids depend upon the configuration, total number of hydroxyl groups, and substitution of functional groups about their nuclear structure. Fruits and vegetables are the main dietary sources of flavonoids for humans, along with tea and wine. Most recent researches have focused on the health aspects of flavonoids for humans.

An antioxidant is a substance that at low concentrations delays or prevents oxidation of a substrate. Antioxidant compounds act through several chemical mechanisms: hydrogen atom transfer HAT , single electron transfer SET , and the ability to chelate transition metals. The importance of antioxidant mechanisms is to understand the biological meaning of antioxidants, their possible uses, their production by organic synthesis or biotechnological methods, or for the standardization of the determination of antioxidant activity. In general, antioxidant molecules can react either by multiple mechanisms or by a predominant mechanism. The chemical structure of the antioxidant substance allows understanding of the antioxidant reaction mechanism. This chapter reviews the in vitro antioxidant reaction mechanisms of organic compounds polyphenols, carotenoids, and vitamins C against free radicals FR and prooxidant compounds under diverse conditions, as well as the most commonly used methods to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these compounds according to the mechanism involved in the reaction with free radicals and the methods of in vitro antioxidant evaluation that are used frequently depending on the reaction mechanism of the antioxidant. Oxidative stress in biological systems is a complex process that is characterized by an imbalance between the production of free radicals FR and the ability of the body to eliminate these reactive species through the use of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants.

The normal biochemical reactions in our body, increased exposure to the environment, and higher levels of dietary xenobiotic's result in the generation of reactive oxygen species ROS and reactive nitrogen species RNS. The reported chemical evidence suggests that dietary antioxidants help in disease prevention. Therefore, it is very important to understand the reaction mechanism of antioxidants with the free radicals. This review elaborates the mechanism of action of the natural antioxidant compounds and assays for the evaluation of their antioxidant activities. The reaction mechanisms of the antioxidant assays are briefly discussed references. Practical applications: understanding the reaction mechanisms can help in evaluating the antioxidant activity of various antioxidant compounds as well as in the development of novel antioxidants. Normal biochemical reactions, increased exposure to the environment, and higher levels of dietary xenobiotics result in the generation of reactive oxygen species ROS and reactive nitrogen species RNS.


Oxidation and Antioxidants in Organic Chemistry and Biology book cover. Enlarge Download. Oxidation After elucidating the chemistry and kinetics of antioxidant action, the book covers oxidative processes that occur in biological systems.


Free Radicals: Properties, Sources, Targets, and Their Implication in Various Diseases

In chemistry , a radical more precisely, a free radical is an atom , molecule , or ion that has unpaired valence electrons or an open electron shell , and therefore may be seen as having one or more "dangling" covalent bonds. With some exceptions, these "dangling" bonds make free radicals highly chemically reactive towards other substances, or even towards themselves: their molecules will often spontaneously dimerize or polymerize if they come in contact with each other. Most radicals are reasonably stable only at very low concentrations in inert media or in a vacuum.

Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview

Antioxidant Compounds and Their Antioxidant Mechanism

Fat-Soluble Vitamins pp Cite as. Vitamin E is the family name given to a group of tocopherols and tocotrienols that function as the principal lipid-soluble chain-breaking antioxidants in biological membranes and lipoproteins. Unable to display preview.

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Antioxidant Compounds and Their Antioxidant Mechanism

Editorial Reviews

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