mittal and thursby religions of south asia pdf

Mittal And Thursby Religions Of South Asia Pdf

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Religions of South Asia An Introduction Edition 1 by All required texts are available for purchase in the campus bookstore. Religions of South Asia is a textbook aimed at undergraduates.

Religions of India. With new research challenging old theories like the Aryan invasion theory how has the study and understanding of Hinduism changed? While early Vedic tradition did not have any great goddess how has the role and status of women in Hinduism evolved with the coming of Devi the ultimate power according to Saktas?

Religions Of South Asia An Introduction - Mittal, Sushil., Thursby, Gene R

South Asia or Southern Asia is the southern region of Asia , which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms. The Amu Darya , which rises north of the Hindu Kush , forms part of the northwestern border. However, the total area of South Asia and its geographical extent is not clear cut as systemic and foreign policy orientations of its constituents are quite asymmetrical.

The common definition of South Asia is largely inherited from the administrative boundaries of the British Raj, [35] with several exceptions. The current territories of Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan which were the core territories of the British Empire from to also form the core territories of South Asia. By various definitions based on substantially different reasons, the British Indian Ocean Territory and the Tibet Autonomous Region are included as well.

The boundaries of South Asia vary based on how the region is defined. South Asia's northern, eastern, and western boundaries vary based on definitions used, while the Indian Ocean is the southern periphery. Most of this region rests on the Indian Plate and is isolated from the rest of Asia by mountain barriers. The terms " Indian subcontinent " and "South Asia" are sometimes used interchangeably.

The use of the term Indian subcontinent began in the British Empire, and has been a term particularly common in its successors. According to Robert M. The frontier of Greater South Asia, states Cutler, between and has been geopolitically extended to eastern Iran and western Afghanistan in the west, and in the north to northeastern Iran, northern Afghanistan, and southern Uzbekistan. The definitions are also varied across South Asian Study programmes. The history of core South Asia begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens , as long as 75, years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about , years ago.

The Indus Valley Civilization , which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of South Asia from c. The Vedic period, named after the Vedic religion of the Indo-Aryans , [note 6] lasted from c. Increasing urbanisation of India between and BCE, and possibly the spread of urban diseases, contributed to the rise of ascetic movements and of new ideas which challenged the orthodox Brahmanism. The Greek army led by Alexander the Great stayed in the Hindu Kush region of South Asia for several years and then later moved into the Indus valley region.

Buddhism spread beyond south Asia, through northwest into Central Asia. The wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni, plundering and looting these kingdoms.

Muhammad bin Tughlaq came to power in , launched a war of expansion and the Delhi Sultanate reached it largest geographical reach over the South Asian region during his year rule. Revolts against the Delhi Sultanate sprang up in many parts of South Asia during the 14th century.

The Bengal Sultanate remained in power through the early 16th century. It was reconquered by the armies of the Mughal Empire. The state religion of the Bengal Sultanate was Islam, and the region under its rule, a region that ultimately emerged as the modern nation of Bangladesh, saw a growth of a syncretic form of Islam. Babur defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat in The modern history period of South Asia, that is 16th-century onwards, witnessed the start of the Central Asian dynasty named the Mughals, with Turkish-Mongol roots and Sunni Islam theology.

The Deccan and northeastern region of South Asia was largely under Hindu kings such as those of Vijayanagara Empire and Ahom kingdom , [] with some regions such as parts of modern Telangana and Andhra Pradesh under local Sultanates such as the Shia Islamic rulers of Golconda Sultanate. The Mughal Empire continued its wars of expansion after Babur's death. With the fall of the Rajput kingdoms and Vijayanagara, its boundaries encompassed almost the entirety of the Indian subcontinent. However, this time also marked an extended period of religious persecution.

Buddhist, Hindu and Sikh temples were desecrated. However, not all Muslim rulers persecuted non-Muslims. Akbar , a Mughal ruler for example, sought religious tolerance and abolished jizya.

After the death of Aurangzeb and the collapse of the Mughal Empire, which marks the beginning of modern India, in the early 18th century, it provided opportunities for the Marathas , Sikhs , Mysoreans and Nawabs of Bengal to exercise control over large regions of the Indian subcontinent.

British, French, Portuguese colonial interests struck treaties with these rulers and established their trading ports. In the east, the Bengal region was split into Muslim East Bengal and Hindu West Bengal, by the colonial British empire, in the early s, a split that was reversed. East Pakistan became Bangladesh in According to Saul Cohen, early colonial era strategists treated South Asia with East Asia, but in reality, the South Asia region excluding Afghanistan is a distinct geopolitical region separated from other nearby geostrategic realms, one that is geographically diverse.

The tip of the Indian Peninsula had the highest quality pearls. Most of this region is resting on the Indian Plate , the northerly portion of the Indo-Australian Plate , separated from the rest of the Eurasian Plate.

The Indian Plate includes most of South Asia, forming a land mass which extends from the Himalayas into a portion of the basin under the Indian Ocean , including parts of South China and Eastern Indonesia , as well as Kunlun and Karakoram ranges, [] [] and extending up to but not including Ladakh , Kohistan , the Hindu Kush range and Balochistan.

It was once a small continent before colliding with the Eurasian Plate about 50—55 million years ago and giving birth to the Himalayan range and the Tibetan plateau. It is the peninsular region south of the Himalayas and Kuen Lun mountain ranges and east of the Indus River and the Iranian Plateau , extending southward into the Indian Ocean between the Arabian Sea to the southwest and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast.

The climate of this vast region varies considerably from area to area from tropical monsoon in the south to temperate in the north. The variety is influenced by not only the altitude but also by factors such as proximity to the seacoast and the seasonal impact of the monsoons. Southern parts are mostly hot in summers and receive rain during monsoon periods.

The northern belt of Indo-Gangetic plains also is hot in summer, but cooler in winter. The mountainous north is colder and receives snowfall at higher altitudes of Himalayan ranges. As the Himalayas block the north-Asian bitter cold winds, the temperatures are considerably moderate in the plains down below.

For the most part, the climate of the region is called the Monsoon climate, which keeps the region humid during summer and dry during winter, and favours the cultivation of jute , tea , rice , and various vegetables in this region.

South Asia is largely divided into four broad climate zones: []. South Asia depends critically on monsoon rainfall. The warmest period of the year precedes the monsoon season March to mid June.

In the summer the low pressures are centered over the Indus-Gangetic Plain and high wind from the Indian Ocean blows towards the center.

The monsoons are the second coolest season of the year because of high humidity and cloud covering. The change is violent. Moderately vigorous monsoon depressions form in the Bay of Bengal and make landfall from June to September.

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states including uninhabited territories , but does not include claims on Antarctica. The population of South Asia is about 1. There are numerous languages in South Asia. The spoken languages of the region are largely based on geography and shared across religious boundaries, but the written script is sharply divided by religious boundaries.

Till , Muslim-majority Bangladesh then known as East Pakistan also mandated only the Nastaliq script, but after that adopted regional scripts and particularly Bengali, after the Language Movement for the adoption of Bengali as the official language of the then East Pakistan.

Non-Muslims of South Asia, and some Muslims in India, on the other hand, use their traditional ancient heritage scripts such as those derived from Brahmi script for Indo-European languages and non-Brahmi scripts for Dravidian languages and others.

The Nagari script has been the primus inter pares of the traditional South Asian scripts. The spoken language is similar, but it is written in three scripts. The Gurmukhi and Nagari scripts are distinct but close in their structure, but the Persian Nastaliq script is very different. English, with British spelling, is commonly used in urban areas and is a major economic lingua franca of South Asia. In , South Asia had the world's largest population of Hindus , Jains and Sikhs , [15] about million Muslims , [15] as well as over 25 million Buddhists and 35 million Christians.

Indian religions are the religions that originated in the India; namely Hinduism , Jainism , Buddhism and Sikhism.

Later Sindh , Balochistan , and parts of the Punjab region saw conquest by the Arab caliphates along with an influx of Muslims from Persia and Central Asia, which resulted in spread of both Shia and Sunni Islam in parts of northwestern region of South Asia.

South Asia is home to some of the most populated cities in the world. Dhaka , Delhi , Mumbai , Karachi and Lahore are some of the world's largest megacities. It is the fastest-growing major economy in the world and one of the world's fastest registering a growth of 7. It has the fastest GDP growth rate in Asia.

It is one of the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and It is also listed among the Next Eleven countries. It is also one of the fastest-growing middle-income countries. According to a World Bank report in , driven by a strong expansion in India, coupled with favorable oil prices, from the last quarter of South Asia became the fastest-growing region in the world [].

Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka have the lowest number of people below the poverty line, with 2. India has lifted the most people in the region above the poverty line between and , around million. As of , One of the key challenges in assessing the quality of education in South Asia is the vast range of contextual difference across the region, complicating any attempt to compare between countries.

Only sub-Saharan Africa had a higher rate of children not learning. Two-thirds of these children were in school, sitting in classrooms. Only 19 percent of children attending primary and lower secondary schools attaining a minimum proficiency level in reading and mathematics. While over half of the students complete secondary school with acquiring requisite skills. In South Asia, classrooms are teacher-centred and rote-based, while children are often subjected to corporal punishment and discrimination.

While by India and Pakistan has two of the most developed and increasingly decentralised education systems, Bangladesh still had a highly centralised system, and Nepal is in a state of transition from a centralized to a decentralized system. But parents are still faced with unmanageable secondary financial demands, including private tuition to make up for the inadequacies of the education system.

The larger and poorer countries in the region, like India and Bangladesh, struggle financially to get sufficient resources to sustain an education system required for their vast populations, with an added challenge of getting large numbers of out-of-school children enrolled into schools. Children's education in the region is also adversely affected by natural and human-made crises including natural hazards, political instability, rising extremism and civil strife that makes it difficult to deliver educational services.

The precarious security situation in Afghanistan is a big barrier in rolling out education programmes on a national scale. According to UNICEF, girls face incredible hurdles to pursue their education in the region, [] while UNESCO estimated in that 24 million girls of primary-school age in the region were not receiving any formal education. With about 21 million students in universities and 40 thousand colleges India had the one of the largest higher education systems in the world in , accounting for 86 percent of all higher-level students in South Asia.

Bangladesh two million and Pakistan 1. In Nepal thousand and Sri Lanka thousand the numbers were much smaller. Bhutan with only one university and Maldives with none hardly had between them about students in higher education in The gross enrolment ratio in ranged from about 10 percent in Pakistan and Afghanistan to above 20 percent in India, much below the global average of 31 percent.

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Buy now. Delivery included to Germany. Sushil Mittal editor , Gene R. Thursby editor Second edition. India is a highly diverse country, home to a wide array of languages, religions, and cultural traditions. Analyzing the dynamic religious traditions of this democratic nation sheds light on the complex evolution from India's past to today's modern culture.

Religions of India: An Introduction

Please note that the list below includes only the background reading for each week plus some further reading suggestions. For the required reading and study questions for seminars, please see the Module Handbook. Mittal, Sushil, and Gene Thursby. New York: Routledge, pp.

Navigationsleiste aufklappen. Sehr geehrter ZLibrary-Benutzer! Wir haben Sie an die spezielle Domain de1lib. It is also one of the most dynamic and historically rich regions on earth, where changing political and social structures have caused religions to interact and hybridise in unique ways.

This revised and updated edition is one of the best introductory sources on Indian religions being both accessible and authoritative. An excellent feature is the final chapter that raises critical questions about 'religion' as a concept and demonstrating the permeability and interconnections between the traditions discussed in the South Asia context. It should be the starting point for non-specialists and a point for deeper entry for intermediate students of the region. This book is the answer to teaching the religions of India through multiple perspectives in one semester. Their introduction states the purpose in releasing a new edition with some additional material in the deliberate structure of chapters in varied lengths, thus reflecting the historical and influential depth that each religious tradition holds.

South Asia

South Asian religions, an introduction article Khan Academy. Seated Buddha from Gandhara, 2nd - 3rd century C. Written by leading experts, Religions of South Asia combines solid scholarship with clear and lively writing to provide students with an accessible and comprehensive introduction.

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