nervous system quiz anatomy and physiology pdf

Nervous System Quiz Anatomy And Physiology Pdf

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Like all body systems, the nervous system goes through inevitable age-related changes, including a loss of brain cells, but ageing does not necessarily lead to confusion or dementia. The nervous system controls the activities of all body organs and tissues, receiving input from sensory organs and responding via effector organs.

The nervous system is a complex network of nerves and nerve cells neurons that carry signals or messages to and from the brain and spinal cord to different parts of the body. It is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord.

Anatomy and physiology of the nervous system

The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system, and they represent the main organs of the nervous system. The spinal cord is a single structure, whereas the adult brain is described in terms of four major regions: the cerebrum, the diencephalon, the brain stem, and the cerebellum.

The regulation of homeostasis is governed by a specialized region in the brain. The coordination of reflexes depends on the integration of sensory and motor pathways in the spinal cord. The iconic gray mantle of the human brain, which appears to make up most of the mass of the brain, is the cerebrum [link].

The wrinkled portion is the cerebral cortex , and the rest of the structure is beneath that outer covering. There is a large separation between the two sides of the cerebrum called the longitudinal fissure. It separates the cerebrum into two distinct halves, a right and left cerebral hemisphere. Deep within the cerebrum, the white matter of the corpus callosum provides the major pathway for communication between the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex.

Many of the higher neurological functions, such as memory, emotion, and consciousness, are the result of cerebral function. The complexity of the cerebrum is different across vertebrate species. The cerebrum of the most primitive vertebrates is not much more than the connection for the sense of smell.

The basal nuclei are responsible for cognitive processing, the most important function being that associated with planning movements. The basal forebrain contains nuclei that are important in learning and memory. The limbic cortex is the region of the cerebral cortex that is part of the limbic system , a collection of structures involved in emotion, memory, and behavior.

The cerebrum is covered by a continuous layer of gray matter that wraps around either side of the forebrain—the cerebral cortex.

This thin, extensive region of wrinkled gray matter is responsible for the higher functions of the nervous system. The pattern of these folds of tissue indicates specific regions of the cerebral cortex. The head is limited by the size of the birth canal, and the brain must fit inside the cranial cavity of the skull.

Extensive folding in the cerebral cortex enables more gray matter to fit into this limited space. If the gray matter of the cortex were peeled off of the cerebrum and laid out flat, its surface area would be roughly equal to one square meter. The folding of the cortex maximizes the amount of gray matter in the cranial cavity. The surface of the brain can be mapped on the basis of the locations of large gyri and sulci. Using these landmarks, the cortex can be separated into four major regions, or lobes [link].

The lateral sulcus that separates the temporal lobe from the other regions is one such landmark. Superior to the lateral sulcus are the parietal lobe and frontal lobe , which are separated from each other by the central sulcus.

The posterior region of the cortex is the occipital lobe , which has no obvious anatomical border between it and the parietal or temporal lobes on the lateral surface of the brain. From the medial surface, an obvious landmark separating the parietal and occipital lobes is called the parieto-occipital sulcus.

The fact that there is no obvious anatomical border between these lobes is consistent with the functions of these regions being interrelated. Different regions of the cerebral cortex can be associated with particular functions, a concept known as localization of function.

In the early s, a German neuroscientist named Korbinian Brodmann performed an extensive study of the microscopic anatomy—the cytoarchitecture—of the cerebral cortex and divided the cortex into 52 separate regions on the basis of the histology of the cortex. Areas 17 and 18 in the occipital lobe are responsible for primary visual perception. That visual information is complex, so it is processed in the temporal and parietal lobes as well. Because regions of the temporal lobe are part of the limbic system, memory is an important function associated with that lobe.

Even memories of movement are really the memory of sensory feedback from those movements, such as stretching muscles or the movement of the skin around a joint. Structures in the temporal lobe are responsible for establishing long-term memory, but the ultimate location of those memories is usually in the region in which the sensory perception was processed.

The main sensation associated with the parietal lobe is somatosensation , meaning the general sensations associated with the body. All of the tactile senses are processed in this area, including touch, pressure, tickle, pain, itch, and vibration, as well as more general senses of the body such as proprioception and kinesthesia , which are the senses of body position and movement, respectively.

Anterior to the central sulcus is the frontal lobe, which is primarily associated with motor functions. The precentral gyrus is the primary motor cortex. Cells from this region of the cerebral cortex are the upper motor neurons that instruct cells in the spinal cord to move skeletal muscles. Anterior to this region are a few areas that are associated with planned movements. The premotor area is responsible for thinking of a movement to be made. The frontal eye fields are important in eliciting eye movements and in attending to visual stimuli.

Anterior to these regions is the prefrontal lobe , which serves cognitive functions that can be the basis of personality, short-term memory, and consciousness. The prefrontal lobotomy is an outdated mode of treatment for personality disorders psychiatric conditions that profoundly affected the personality of the patient.

Beneath the cerebral cortex are sets of nuclei known as subcortical nuclei that augment cortical processes. The nuclei of the basal forebrain serve as the primary location for acetylcholine production, which modulates the overall activity of the cortex, possibly leading to greater attention to sensory stimuli. The hippocampus and amygdala are medial-lobe structures that, along with the adjacent cortex, are involved in long-term memory formation and emotional responses.

The basal nuclei are a set of nuclei in the cerebrum responsible for comparing cortical processing with the general state of activity in the nervous system to influence the likelihood of movement taking place.

For example, while a student is sitting in a classroom listening to a lecture, the basal nuclei will keep the urge to jump up and scream from actually happening. The basal nuclei are also referred to as the basal ganglia, although that is potentially confusing because the term ganglia is typically used for peripheral structures.

The major structures of the basal nuclei that control movement are the caudate , putamen , and globus pallidus , which are located deep in the cerebrum. The caudate is a long nucleus that follows the basic C-shape of the cerebrum from the frontal lobe, through the parietal and occipital lobes, into the temporal lobe.

The putamen is mostly deep in the anterior regions of the frontal and parietal lobes. Together, the caudate and putamen are called the striatum. The globus pallidus is a layered nucleus that lies just medial to the putamen; they are called the lenticular nuclei because they look like curved pieces fitting together like lenses.

The globus pallidus has two subdivisions, the external and internal segments, which are lateral and medial, respectively. These nuclei are depicted in a frontal section of the brain in [link]. The basal nuclei in the cerebrum are connected with a few more nuclei in the brain stem that together act as a functional group that forms a motor pathway. Two streams of information processing take place in the basal nuclei. All input to the basal nuclei is from the cortex into the striatum [link].

The direct pathway is the projection of axons from the striatum to the globus pallidus internal segment GPi and the substantia nigra pars reticulata SNr.

The direct pathway causes the disinhibition of the thalamus inhibition of one cell on a target cell that then inhibits the first cell , whereas the indirect pathway causes, or reinforces, the normal inhibition of the thalamus.

The thalamus then can either excite the cortex as a result of the direct pathway or fail to excite the cortex as a result of the indirect pathway. The switch between the two pathways is the substantia nigra pars compacta , which projects to the striatum and releases the neurotransmitter dopamine.

Dopamine receptors are either excitatory D1-type receptors or inhibitory D2-type receptors. The direct pathway is activated by dopamine, and the indirect pathway is inhibited by dopamine.

When the substantia nigra pars compacta is firing, it signals to the basal nuclei that the body is in an active state, and movement will be more likely. When the substantia nigra pars compacta is silent, the body is in a passive state, and movement is inhibited. To illustrate this situation, while a student is sitting listening to a lecture, the substantia nigra pars compacta would be silent and the student less likely to get up and walk around.

Watch this video to learn about the basal nuclei also known as the basal ganglia , which have two pathways that process information within the cerebrum. As shown in this video, the direct pathway is the shorter pathway through the system that results in increased activity in the cerebral cortex and increased motor activity.

What does disinhibition mean? What are the two neurons doing individually to cause this? As shown in this video, the indirect pathway is the longer pathway through the system that results in decreased activity in the cerebral cortex, and therefore less motor activity.

The indirect pathway has an extra couple of connections in it, including disinhibition of the subthalamic nucleus. What is the end result on the thalamus, and therefore on movement initiated by the cerebral cortex? There is some lateralization of function, in which the left side of the brain is devoted to language function and the right side is devoted to spatial and nonverbal reasoning.

Whereas these functions are predominantly associated with those sides of the brain, there is no monopoly by either side on these functions. Many pervasive functions, such as language, are distributed globally around the cerebrum. Some of the support for this misconception has come from studies of split brains. A drastic way to deal with a rare and devastating neurological condition intractable epilepsy is to separate the two hemispheres of the brain.

After sectioning the corpus callosum, a split-brained patient will have trouble producing verbal responses on the basis of sensory information processed on the right side of the cerebrum, leading to the idea that the left side is responsible for language function. However, there are well-documented cases of language functions lost from damage to the right side of the brain. The deficits seen in damage to the left side of the brain are classified as aphasia, a loss of speech function; damage on the right side can affect the use of language.

Right-side damage can result in a loss of ability to understand figurative aspects of speech, such as jokes, irony, or metaphors. The diencephalon is the one region of the adult brain that retains its name from embryologic development. The rest of the brain, the spinal cord, and the PNS all send information to the cerebrum through the diencephalon. Output from the cerebrum passes through the diencephalon.

The single exception is the system associated with olfaction , or the sense of smell, which connects directly with the cerebrum. In the earliest vertebrate species, the cerebrum was not much more than olfactory bulbs that received peripheral information about the chemical environment to call it smell in these organisms is imprecise because they lived in the ocean. The diencephalon is deep beneath the cerebrum and constitutes the walls of the third ventricle.

The two major regions of the diencephalon are the thalamus itself and the hypothalamus [link]. There are other structures, such as the epithalamus , which contains the pineal gland, or the subthalamus , which includes the subthalamic nucleus that is part of the basal nuclei. The thalamus is a collection of nuclei that relay information between the cerebral cortex and the periphery, spinal cord, or brain stem.

All sensory information, except for the sense of smell, passes through the thalamus before processing by the cortex. Axons from the peripheral sensory organs, or intermediate nuclei, synapse in the thalamus, and thalamic neurons project directly to the cerebrum. It is a requisite synapse in any sensory pathway, except for olfaction.

Nervous System Quizzes

The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Together, these organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts. The brain and spinal cord form the control center known as the central nervous system CNS , where information is evaluated and decisions made. The sensory nerves and sense organs of the peripheral nervous system PNS monitor conditions inside and outside of the body and send this information to the CNS. Efferent nerves in the PNS carry signals from the control center to the muscles, glands, and organs to regulate their functions.

The picture you have in your mind of the nervous system probably includes the brain , the nervous tissue contained within the cranium, and the spinal cord , the extension of nervous tissue within the vertebral column. The brain is contained within the cranial cavity of the skull, and the spinal cord is contained within the vertebral canal of the vertebral column. The peripheral nervous system is so named because it is in the periphery—meaning beyond the brain and spinal cord. In addition to the anatomical divisions listed above, the nervous system can also be divided on the basis of its functions. The nervous system is involved in receiving information about the environment around us sensory functions, sensation and generating responses to that information motor functions, responses and coordinating the two integration.

The nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system of the body. Every thought, action, and emotion reflects its activity. Its signaling device, or means of communicating with body cells, is electrical impulses, which are rapid and specific and cause almost immediate responses. The nervous system does not work alone to regulate and maintain body homeostasis ; the endocrine system is a second important regulating system. We only have one nervous system, but, because of its complexity, it is difficult to consider all of its parts at the same time; so, to simplify its study, we divide it in terms of its structures structural classification or in terms of its activities functional classification. The structural classification, which includes all of the nervous system organs, has two subdivisions- the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

Nervous System Anatomy and Physiology

Neurons transmit nerve impulses along nerve fibers to otheneurons 2. Information Technology Solutions. Divided into 3 main regions: Cerebrum, Cerebellum, and the Brain Stem. Peripheral nervous system.

The nervous system is a complex network of nerves and nerve cells neurons that carry signals or messages to and from the brain and spinal cord to different parts of the body. It is made up of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord.

The Central Nervous System

The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system, and they represent the main organs of the nervous system. The spinal cord is a single structure, whereas the adult brain is described in terms of four major regions: the cerebrum, the diencephalon, the brain stem, and the cerebellum. The regulation of homeostasis is governed by a specialized region in the brain.

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